A guide to writing geography papers - SVSU A thesis can be found in many places—a debate speech, a lawyer’s closing argument, even an advertisement. But the most common place for a thesis statement (and probably why you’re reading this article) is in an essay. Your objective in writing a geography research paper most often is to assemble. papers; it has articles pertaining to geography and geology 1980-present.
How to Write a Strong Thesis Statement - EasyBib Blog Understanding the Key Elements of an Annotated Outline Creating an Annotated Outline without Citations Creating an Annotated Outline with Citations Community Q&A Before you begin writing your research paper, you may be advised by your teacher to create an annotated outline. An annotated outline can help you organize the main points of your paper and ensure your research supports your thesis. Whether you're writing an argumentative, informative, or a comparative paper, we have some tips for you on how to write a strong thesis.
Geology Personal Statement Examples Despite the fact that, as Shakespeare said, "the pen is mightier than the sword," the pen itself is not enough to make an effective writer. In fact, though we may all like to think of ourselves as the next Shakespeare, inspiration alone is not the key to effective essay writing. You see, the conventions of English essays are more formulaic than you might think – and, in many ways, it can be as simple as counting to five. Though more advanced academic papers are a category all their own, the basic high school or college essay has the following standardized, five paragraph structure: Paragraph 1: Introduction Paragraph 2: Body 1 Paragraph 3: Body 2 Paragraph 4: Body 3 Paragraph 5: Conclusion Though it may seem formulaic – and, well, it is - the idea behind this structure is to make it easier for the reader to navigate the ideas put forth in an essay. You see, if your essay has the same structure as every other one, any reader should be able to quickly and easily find the information most relevant to them. The principle purpose of the introduction is to present your position (this is also known as the "thesis" or "argument") on the issue at hand but effective introductory paragraphs are so much more than that. Before you even get to this thesis statement, for example, the essay should begin with a "hook" that grabs the reader’s attention and makes them want to read on. Examples of effective hooks include relevant quotations ("no man is an island") or surprising statistics ("three out of four doctors report that…"). Only then, with the reader’s attention "hooked," should you move on to the thesis. The thesis should be a clear, one-sentence explanation of your position that leaves no doubt in the reader’s mind about which side you are on from the beginning of your essay. Following the thesis, you should provide a mini-outline which previews the examples you will use to support your thesis in the rest of the essay. Not only does this tell the reader what to expect in the paragraphs to come but it also gives them a clearer understanding of what the essay is about. Finally, designing the last sentence in this way has the added benefit of seamlessly moving the reader to the first paragraph of the body of the paper. In this way we can see that the basic introduction does not need to be much more than three or four sentences in length. If yours is much longer you might want to consider editing it down a bit! Here, by way of example, is an introductory paragraph to an essay in response to the following question: "Do we learn more from finding out that we have made mistakes or from our successful actions? " "No man is an island" and, as such, he is constantly shaped and influenced by his experiences. People learn by doing and, accordingly, learn considerably more from their mistakes than their success. For proof of this, consider examples from both science and everyday experience. Because this is the first paragraph of your essay it is your opportunity to give the reader the best first impression possible. The introductory paragraph not only gives the reader an idea of what you will talk about but also shows them how you will talk about it. Put a disproportionate amount of effort into this – more than the 20% a simple calculation would suggest – and you will be rewarded accordingly. Active voice, wherein the subjects direct actions rather than let the actions "happen to" them – "he scored a 97%" instead of "he was given a 97%" – is a much more powerful and attention-grabbing way to write. At the same time, unless it is a personal narrative, avoid personal pronouns like I, My, or Me. Try instead to be more general and you will have your reader hooked. The middle paragraphs of the essay are collectively known as the body paragraphs and, as alluded to above, the main purpose of a body paragraph is to spell out in detail the examples that support your thesis. For the first body paragraph you should use your strongest argument or most significant example unless some other more obvious beginning point (as in the case of chronological explanations) is required. The first sentence of this paragraph should be the topic sentence of the paragraph that directly relates to the examples listed in the mini-outline of introductory paragraph. A one sentence body paragraph that simply cites the example of "George Washington" or "Le Bron James" is not enough, however. No, following this an effective essay will follow up on this topic sentence by explaining to the reader, in detail, who or what an example is and, more importantly, why that example is relevant. For example, George Washington’s life was extremely complex – by using him as an example, do you intend to refer to his honesty, bravery, or maybe even his wooden teeth? The reader needs to know this and it is your job as the writer to paint the appropriate picture for them. To do this, it is a good idea to provide the reader with five or six relevant facts about the life (in general) or event (in particular) you believe most clearly illustrates your point. The importance of this step cannot be understated (although it clearly can be underlined); this is, after all, the whole reason you are providing the example in the first place. Seal the deal by directly stating why this example is relevant. Here is an example of a body paragraph to continue the essay begun above: Take, by way of example, Thomas Edison. The famed American inventor rose to prominence in the late 19th century because of his successes, yes, but even he felt that these successes were the result of his many failures. He did not succeed in his work on one of his most famous inventions, the lightbulb, on his first try nor even on his hundred and first try. In fact, it took him more than 1,000 attempts to make the first incandescent bulb but, along the way, he learned quite a deal. As he himself said, "I did not fail a thousand times but instead succeeded in finding a thousand ways it would not work." Thus Edison demonstrated both in thought and action how instructive mistakes can be. The first sentence – the topic sentence - of your body paragraphs needs to have a lot individual pieces to be truly effective. Not only should it open with a transition that signals the change from one idea to the next but also it should (ideally) also have a common thread which ties all of the body paragraphs together. For example, if you used "first" in the first body paragraph then you should used "secondly" in the second or "on the one hand" and "on the other hand" accordingly. Examples should be relevant to the thesis and so should the explanatory details you provide for them. It can be hard to summarize the full richness of a given example in just a few lines so make them count. If you are trying to explain why George Washington is a great example of a strong leader, for instance, his childhood adventure with the cherry tree (though interesting in another essay) should probably be skipped over. You may have noticed that, though the above paragraph aligns pretty closely with the provided outline, there is one large exception: the first few words. These words are example of a transitional phrase – others include "furthermore," "moreover," but also "by contrast" and "on the other hand" – and are the hallmark of good writing. Transitional phrases are useful for showing the reader where one section ends and another begins. It may be helpful to see them as the written equivalent of the kinds of spoken cues used in formal speeches that signal the end of one set of ideas and the beginning of another. In essence, they lead the reader from one section of the paragraph of another. To further illustrate this, consider the second body paragraph of our example essay: In a similar way, we are all like Edison in our own way. Whenever we learn a new skill - be it riding a bike, driving a car, or cooking a cake - we learn from our mistakes. Few, if any, are ready to go from training wheels to a marathon in a single day but these early experiences (these so-called mistakes) can help us improve our performance over time. You cannot make a cake without breaking a few eggs and, likewise, we learn by doing and doing inevitably means making mistakes. Hopefully this example not only provides another example of an effective body paragraph but also illustrates how transitional phrases can be used to distinguish between them. Although the conclusion paragraph comes at the end of your essay it should not be seen as an afterthought. As the final paragraph is represents your last chance to make your case and, as such, should follow an extremely rigid format. One way to think of the conclusion is, paradoxically, as a second introduction because it does in fact contain many of the same features. While it does not need to be too long – four well-crafted sentence should be enough – it can make or break and essay. Effective conclusions open with a concluding transition ("in conclusion," "in the end," etc.) and an allusion to the "hook" used in the introductory paragraph. After that you should immediately provide a restatement of your thesis statement. This should be the fourth or fifth time you have repeated your thesis so while you should use a variety of word choice in the body paragraphs it is a acceptable idea to use some (but not all) of the original language you used in the introduction. This echoing effect not only reinforces your argument but also ties it nicely to the second key element of the conclusion: a brief (two or three words is enough) review of the three main points from the body of the paper. Having done all of that, the final element – and final sentence in your essay – should be a "global statement" or "call to action" that gives the reader signals that the discussion has come to an end. In the end, then, one thing is clear: mistakes do far more to help us learn and improve than successes. As examples from both science and everyday experience can attest, if we treat each mistake not as a misstep but as a learning experience the possibilities for self-improvement are limitless. The conclusion paragraph can be a difficult paragraph to write effectively but, as it is your last chance to convince or otherwise impress the reader, it is worth investing some time in. Take this opportunity to restate your thesis with confidence; if you present your argument as "obvious" then the reader might just do the same. Although you can reuse the same key words in the conclusion as you did in the introduction, try not to copy whole phrases word for word. Instead, try to use this last paragraph to really show your skills as a writer by being as artful in your rephrasing as possible. Although it may seem like a waste of time – especially during exams where time is tight – it is almost always better to brainstorm a bit before beginning your essay. This should enable you to find the best supporting ideas – rather than simply the first ones that come to mind – and position them in your essay accordingly. Your best supporting idea – the one that most strongly makes your case and, simultaneously, about which you have the most knowledge – should go first. Even the best-written essays can fail because of ineffectively placed arguments. Sentences and vocabulary of varying complexity are one of the hallmarks of effective writing. When you are writing, try to avoid using the same words and phrases over and over again. You don’t have to be a walking thesaurus but a little variance can make the same idea sparkle. If you are asked about "money," you could try "wealth" or "riches." At the same time, avoid beginning sentences the dull pattern of "subject verb direct object." Although examples of this are harder to give, consider our writing throughout this article as one big example of sentence structure variety. In the end, though, remember that good writing does not happen by accident. Although we have endeavored to explain everything that goes into effective essay writing in as clear and concise a way as possible, it is much easier in theory than it is in practice. As a result, we recommend that you practice writing sample essays on various topics. Even if they are not masterpieces at first, a bit of regular practice will soon change that – and make you better prepared when it comes to the real thing. We hope our collection of UCAS Geology personal statements provides inspiration for writing your own. Please do not plagiarise them in any way, or UCAS will.
Ways to Write an Annotated Outline - How Geology is the study of the earth, its environments, and its history. It is an interdisciplinary science that combines geological observations and concepts with those of biology, chemistry, physics, and mathematics. Its goals are to study rocks, minerals, fossils, and energy and water resources, and to understand geologic principles and processes that shape the earth and its environments. The Sacramento State Geology program has three objectives: The BA degree program is designed as a shorter, more flexible preparation for some geology jobs, earth science teaching in high school (see Teaching Credential), and jobs such as park naturalist, environmentalist, geologic planning specialist, or in geology-related businesses. The BA degree can be used in dual-track majors combining geology with biological sciences, chemistry, physics, or engineering. The BS degree program is designed to be the best possible preparation for advanced work in geology in graduate school or for professional employment as a geologist. The Geology program offers a strong background in the major areas of geology including: mineralogy, petrology, paleontology, stratigraphy, structural geology, field mapping, hydrogeology, and report writing. Geologist · Geophysicist · Groundwater Geologist · Oil and Gas Geologist · Mineralogist · Paleontologist · Marine Geologist · Environmental Geologist · Photogeologist · Seismologist · Consulting Geologist · Soils Engineer · Land Use Planner · Volcanologist · Astrogeologist · Geochemist · Economic Geologist · Mining Geologist · Hydrologist · Government Geologist · Coal Geologist · Glacial Geologist · Vertebrate Paleontologist · Geology Professor · Earth Science Teacher Students wishing a Geology minor must contact a Geology advisor before beginning upper division work in Geology. Geology majors who intend to pursue a teaching credential must complete the science subject matter program which is described in this catalog. Successful completion of this program fulfills the subject matter competence requirement and qualifies students to enter the teaching credential program in the College of Education. The Science Teaching Credential allows graduates to teach all four of the sciences (Geoscience, Biology, Chemistry, and Physics) at the General Science level in 7-12 grades, and Geoscience at an advanced level in high school. Currently there is a great need for K-12 teachers educated in science. Changes in State Board of Education Standards and increasing interest in earth and space sciences has created significant demand for students with this credential. Geology majors who have an interest in teaching should contact the credential advisors in the Geology Department (Dave Evans or Judi Kusnick). The graduate program in Geology offers coursework, fieldwork experience, and research that will lead to a Master of Science degree in Geology. It allows students who successfully complete the program to upgrade their educational qualifications and advance to doctoral programs or professional positions that require an in-depth knowledge of hydrogeology, environmental geology, and geologic hazards. The University's location in the state capital provides direct access to many local, federal, and state agencies through internship and fieldwork opportunities. Each student should plan a program according to his/her background, interests and objectives, in consultation with a faculty advisor. Students are required to consult with an advisor prior to admission to the program or initiation of graduate study. For information on how to select an advisor, students should contact the Geology Department Office. Fundamentals of the geochemistry of Earth materials. Graduate students who want to engage in teaching as professionals can apply for an appointment as a Graduate Teaching Associate. Thermodynamics and kinetics of geological environments, silicates and carbonates, major element geochemistry, trace and rare earth element geochemistry, stable and radiogenic isotopes. Graduate Teaching Associates have the opportunity to teach one to three lower division laboratory courses per semester and are paid at a rate commensurate with their teaching load. Applications to studies of aqueous, pedogenic, igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic environments. All work toward the degree must be completed within a seven-year period. Analysis of geochemical aspects of contemporary resource, environmental, and paleoenvironmental problems. General Education Area/Graduation Requirement: Further Studies in Area B (B5) Survey of geological, physical, chemical and biological oceanography including the sea floor; waves, tides, currents; the physical and chemical properties of seawater and their distribution in the sea; planktonic life and its relation to nutrients. The general University requirements for graduate degrees are explained in the "Graduate Studies" section of this Catalog or visit the Web site Focused study on the basic forces that drive surficial processes such as wind water and gravity and the role of weathering, sediment transport and deposition on landform and landscape development. Regional study of California and certain surrounding areas with regard to geologic development, plate tectonics, economic resources and geologic hazards. CHEM 1A, GEOL 10, GEOL 10L, PHYS 5A, and MATH 26A or MATH 30, or instructor permission. GWAR certification before Fall 09; or WPJ score of 80 ; or 3-unit placement in ENGL 109M or ENGL 109W; or 4-unit placement in ENGL 109M or ENGL 109W and co-enrollment in ENGL 109X; or WPJ score 70 or 71 and co-enrollment in ENGL 109X. Geology 10 or another physical geology course approved by instructor; Field Trip, 2 units. Admission as a classified graduate student in Geology requires: Students who have deficiencies in Admission Requirements that can be removed by specified additional preparation may be admitted with conditionally classified graduate status. GEOL 5 or GEOL 10 and GEOL 10L, PHYS 5A, PHYS 5B which may be taken concurrently. A laboratory component will enhance student understanding by solving applied problems as well as develop proficiencies with various geologic tools. Presents fundamentals of groundwater flow, as influenced by topography and geology; geological aspects of groundwater supply, contamination, remediation, and protection of hydrogeological regions of the U. General Education Area/Graduation Requirement: Writing Intensive Graduation Requirement (WI), GE AREA D Applies geologic data and principles to situations affecting our environment. An investigation and visit to the many interesting volcanic features and eruption activities of Hawaiian volcanism. GEOL 102, GEOL 103, GEOL 110A, GEOL 110B, GEOL 111A, GEOL 111B and instructor permission. Any deficiencies will be noted on a written response to the admission application. Corequisite(s): GEOL 111A Introduction to geologic field methods including descriptions of rocks, geologic mapping, observation, interpretation and geologic report writing. Introduction to the principal geophysical concepts and techniques useful to geologists in the study of tectonics, the Earth's interior and rresource exploration. Note: 150 minutes Lecture = 3 units, 150 minutes Lab = 1 unit. The geologic study of earthquakes, volcanoes, floods, landslides, groundwater and similar topics supplies the background data for lectures on land use and other social choices. GEOG 109 or instructor permission This course is designed to enhance the mapping skills of geology majors by providing them an opportunity to learn modern computer aided mapping techniques - methods and tools widely used across industry, government, and academe. Topics include tectonics, physical volcanology, and volcanic monitoring techniques. Advanced principles/methods of geologic mapping, interpretation and geologic report writing for selected field areas in the western United States. You must be admitted to the degree program before graduate level courses will count toward the degree. Detailed mapping techniques will also be covered; these may include the use of plane table, total station theodolite and global position systems. Includes the study of seismology, heat flow, gravity, borehole geophysics, electromagnetism and geodynamics. Topics such as geopolitics and mineral supply provide a basis for understanding international politics, social costs, and world economics. The course is designed to teach students how to effectively use various tools and mapping software by applying their developing skills in solving a variety of geological problems. Introduction to the origin, migration, and accumulation of hydrocarbons in the context of stratigraphic and structural systems. Credit/No Credit 10-day field trip to a region of outstanding geology. Analyzes and interpretation of geologic features is emphasized. Note: Student should consult the Geology Department during the semester before planning to take the course. Mapping techniques include the use of aerial photographs and global position systems. GEOL 5 or GEOL 10 and GEOL 10L, GEOL 12, PHYS 5A or PHYS 11A, MATH 29 or high school trigonometry. All prospective classified graduate students, including Sacramento State graduates, must file the following with the Office of Graduate Studies: This course strategy will help develop both student technical map making and innovative problem solving skills. Exploration and production of both conventional and unconventional resources. Consists of on-campus field preparation and off-campus fieldwork. Investigates the engineering properties of earth materials, the engineering considerations required to build safe and durable structures on and within the Earth, and problems associated with structures designed and built neglecting physical environmental conditions. Applications are accepted as long as space for new students exists. GEOL 111A and GEOL 111B, PHYS 5A or PHYS 11A, MATH 26A or MATH 30. It is recommended that GEOL 110A be taken concurrently. GEOL 12L and GEOL 100 Corequisite(s): GEOL 111B Science and art of recognizing, describing and interpreting geologic features in the field. Designed to introduce engineering concepts to students who have a competent grasp of general geologic principles and processes. Supervised unpaid work experience in government or industry. A decision regarding admission will be mailed to the applicant upon receipt of all items listed above. Description, analysis and interpretation of geologic structures and tectonic settings. Field description, mapping and interpretation of geologic structures. Lecture and laboratory course on the preparation and use of topographic and geologic maps, stratigraphic and cross sections, compass and GPS instrument. Supervision is provided by the faculty instructor and responsible officials in the work situations. Each student must file an application for Advancement to Candidacy, indicating a proposed program of graduate study. Theory of stress and strain as it pertains to the origin of folds, faults, joints, cleavage, and other structural elements. Includes techniques of taking detailed field notes, field photography measurement of structures using a pocket transit, geologic map and cross section construction, stereonet analysis, and report writing. Note: Open to all upper division Geology majors with instructor permission. This procedure should begin as soon as the classified graduate student has: Advancement to Candidacy forms are available in the Office of Graduate Studies, River Front Center 215, (916) 278-6470. Laboratory includes techniques of structural analysis such as orthographic projections, stereonets, structure contours, Mohr diagrams, interpretation of maps and cross sections. Number of units earned depends on number of hours worked. The student must fill out the form after planning a degree program in consultation with his/her faculty advisor. GEOL 5 or GEOL 10 and GEOL 10L, GEOL 12 and GEOL 12L. Credit/No Credit Appropriate upper division courses and instructor permission. After approval by the Geology Department Graduate Committee, the completed form is returned to the Office of Graduate Studies for approval. Use of sedimentary rocks, fossils, geologic maps, and structural sections in interpreting ancient environments, tectonic settings, and geologic history. Biology, evolution, classification and paleoecology of important groups of fossil organisms. Supervised individual instruction on techniques applied in geology laboratories for advanced research in mineralogy, petrology, geochemistry, geophysics, and paleontology. Units required for MS: 30 Minimum required GPA: 3.0 ) will be selected with prior approval of the student's faculty advisor in the area of interest. Age relations and correlation of rock and time-rock units. CHEM 1A; and either GEOL 5 or GEOL 10 and GEOL 10L. Credit/No Credit Senior status and appropriate courses as determined by a Departmental faculty committee. In addition to 200-level courses, these may also include up to 6 units of approved technical electives (but not the required courses) from the undergraduate curriculum. Introduction to fossil identification and biostratigraphy. Introduction to mineral identification by physical and optical properties. GEOL 12, GEOL 12L, and GEOL 100 Compositions, textures, classification, origins and structures of sediments and sedimentary rocks. Facies models, classification and correlation of stratigraphic units, subsurface techniques. The proposed project must be approved by a Department committee; instructor permission. Not more than 3 units of first line begins with a capitalized abbreviation that designates the subject area followed by the course number and title. Icons, if displayed, designate courses which satisfy Writing Intensive \x3cspan class=\x22fa\x22 General Education Area/Graduation Requirement: Physical Science (B1), Laboratory (B3) Introduction to Geology through examination of aspects of the geology of Mexico. Techniques and theory of optical mineral analysis, crystallography and mineral formation. GEOL 100 and GEOL 103 Study of the origin, evolution, occurrence, geochemistry, dynamics and physical characteristics of igneous and metamorphic systems. Lab emphasizes hand specimen and microscope identification and subsurface techniques. Selection and design of an independent research project. Emphasizes problem-based approach to learning Geology and the process of scientific investigation. The laboratory will focus on both hand-specimen and petrographic-microscope studies. A final written report is required and includes: research proposal, bibliography, and results of preliminary review of the literature. Senior status and appropriate courses as determined by a Departmental faculty committee. Progress reports may be required by the supervision instructor. Topics include a wide range of geological concepts including plate tectonic setting of Mexico, living with volcanoes: the Mexican volcanic belt, the Mexico City earthquake, issues of water supply, flooding and atmospheric pollution in Mexico City, the Chicxulub crater and geologic time, ore deposits of Mexico. GEOL 5 Focuses on fundamental geologic concepts as seen from real world examples in Mexico that will be visited during several strategic field stops. General Education Area/Graduation Requirement: Further Studies in Area B (B5) Origin and geological history of the earth and the evolution of its animal and plant inhabitants. The proposed project must be approved by the Department committee; instructor permission. Presentation of an oral report on the research project during the same semester is required. Field stops will emphasize a problem-based approach to learning geology and the process of scientific investigation. General Education Area/Graduation Requirement: Physical Science (B1) Examination of earth materials and earth processes through the study of natural disasters. Individual projects or special studies at a beginning level, including fieldwork, lab work, library study, or other learning activities. Topics include a wide range of geological concepts including plate tectonic setting of Mexico, living with volcanoes, the Mexico City earthquake, issues of water supply, flooding, climate change and atmospheric pollution in Mexico City, the Chicxulub meteor impact crater, geologic time, ore deposits of Mexico, and natural hazards. Topics include earthquakes, volcanoes, landslides, floods, tsunamis, hurricanes, tornadoes and meteorite impacts. Note: Open only to students judged competent to carry on individual work. Individual projects or special studies at an intermediate level, including fieldwork, lab work, library study, or other learning activities. Examination of causes, effects and mitigation of natural disasters. Note: Open only to students judged competent to carry on individual work. Individual projects or special studies at an advanced level, including fieldwork, lab work, library study, or other learning activities. Low temperature geochemical reactions in aqueous environments. Contaminants and contaminant transport in near-surface environments. General Education Area/Graduation Requirement: Physical Science (B1) Earth and its neighbors in space. General Education Area/Graduation Requirement: Physical Science (B1), Laboratory (B3) Laboratory supplement to GEOL 10. Note: Open only to students judged competent to carry on individual work. Developing a research proposal, library and internet searches, seeking external funding, presentation graphics, and publication formats. Chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, mixing and dilution, mineral stability, chemical composition of surface water, stable isotopes. Fluid-sediment interaction, fluid partitioning, common geochemical reactions, stability and mobility of groundwater contaminants, multi-phase systems, sampling considerations and overview of analytical techniques. Computer modeling of groundwater systems using 2 and 3 dimensional numerical solutions and common software packages. Advanced field techniques used for geophysical exploration. Scientific method and discovery in the study of stars, planets, weather, rivers, glaciers, oceans, rocks, volcanoes, earthquakes, landslides, mountains, drifting continents, the earth in time. Emphasizes scientific method and systematic laboratory procedures. Introduction to and analysis of topographic and geologic maps. Students will develop a research project in preparation for thesis requirement. Topics will include data acquisition, constructing a numerical model, model calibration, flow paths, particle tracking and model output. Data collection and problem solving using resistvity, conductivity, seismic reflection, seismic refraction, gravity, magnetics and borehole geophysical techniques. CHEM 1A, MATH 30, GEOL 100, or instructor permission. Note: Students contemplating a geology major or minor in geology should enroll in GEOL 10, not in GEOL 8. PHYS 5B or PHYS 11B or equivalent; GEOL 102, GEOL 110A or equivalent; and proficiency using a personal computer. Types of imagery, acquisition, production, processing, and interpretation are covered. GEOL 110A and MATH 30 An advanced treatment of deformation of the lithosphere of the earth over short and long timescales. Use of software packages to solve problems in tectonics and related disciplines. Interpretation of volcanic deposits in the evaluation of volcanic hazards, risk, eruption processes, and geologic history. Fundamentals of the geochemistry of Earth materials. Takes a geological approach to evaluating engineering issues associated with building with or on natural earthen materials. No credit for those who have taken GEOL 10 or equivalent. General Education Area/Graduation Requirement: Physical Science (B1), Laboratory (B3) Emphasizes scientific methods and systematic laboratory procedures. Exploration of the solid Earth, its atmosphere and oceans, and the Earth's place in the solar system. Thermodynamics and kinetics of geological environments, silicates and carbonates, major element geochemistry, trace and rare earth element geochemistry, stable and radiogenic isotopes. Rock and soil mechanics, slope stability, geophysical investigation of rock and soil properties. Graduate-level status in geology, approval of project by a faculty sponsor and Department Chair; instructor permission. Independent research in geology that may include library research, short-term original research, technique development, fieldwork, or laboratory research. Culminating experience will be in the form of a written report, oral presentation, or scientific paper. Includes weather analysis, rock and mineral identification, study of geologic concepts by means of topographic maps, and exercises in astronomy and oceanography. Emphasizes learning Earth science through investigation, and uses Earth science to understand the processes of science. General Education Area/Graduation Requirement: Physical Science (B1) Rocks and their mineral constituents, geological processes such as weathering, erosion, glaciation, mountain building, etc., volcanoes, earthquakes, folds, faults, the earth's interior, plate tectonics and earth resources. Applications to studies of aqueous, pedogenic, igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic environments. Advanced to candidacy and chair permission of his/her thesis committee. Analysis of geochemical aspects of contemporary resource, environmental, and paleoenvironmental problems. Advanced special topics in Geology that may include structural geology, volcanology, hydrogeology, engineering geology or other specialized topics selected to meet student demand or respond to industry trends in geology. Application of advanced geological concepts in tectonics, stratigraphy, sedimentology, petrology, and volconism to the geologic evolution of the Western United States from Precambrian to present. Completion of a thesis approved for the Master's degree. Note: Lecture 3 hours = 3 units; laboratory 170 minutes = 1 unit. Water budgets, theories of groundwater flow to wells, hydrogeologic regimes, fracture flow, dewatering, salt water intrusion, dating and chemical identification of water. Should be taken in the final semester prior to the completion of all requirements for the degree. A written comprehensive examination administed by a committee of three faculty members. Assesses the student's ability to integrate knowledge from core and elective courses, show critical and independent thinking, and demonstrate mastery of the subject matter. Before you begin writing your research paper, you may be advised by. For example, under one section heading, The Geological Profile of.
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Writing Manual - edu The first step to writing a great college paper is finding the right topic for you. You should pick a topic that you have a great understanding, and that’s also interesting. Controversy might be a good thing in a topic, but only if it’s purely scientific, which means that it’s good to stay away from topics in which the debate is science vs. So after you chose your topic the next step is make as much research as you need to show credibility to anyone that reads your paper. Do not hesitate to ask your geology professor for help if you need to. If you want to write a great paper check this website Here are topics that will give you a hook for an impressive paper: This is a great topic because it has some controversy. You can write about the people who are against it because of the cost, impact, and lack of interest. It’s also interesting to talk about the cost and length of implementation. The interesting part of this topic is that you can write about the entire formation process of the region that dates back to the last glacial period and the volcanic activities. In this topic, you can discuss the whole process of rock formation and the different types of rocks. You can talk about sedimentary rocks, igneous rocks, and metamorphic rocks. You can show both sides giving you plenty of space to build a solid argument for you paper since the subject is quite extensive. You can talk about the erosion problem that occurs on the eastern and western US coasts, how it began and the severity of the issue. You can speak of geology explaining what it is, what it does, and the entire process to get to scientific conclusions. Discuss the formation and the entire history of one of the most famous volcanoes in the world. Here you can talk about how accurate is carbon dating, and you can also expand to other radioactive dating techniques. Talk about the formation of the area plus the San Andreas Fault. You can talk about what is going to be the impact of human activity in the next hundreds of years. There you have a list of exciting topics for you to produce an excellent paper. Pick the one you’re most familiar with not just the one you think would be a great paper. In the end if you choose to write about a topic that you don’t know much about, make sure to perform thorough research before writing it. Information is in a field-trip report, master's thesis, or a paper for publication, the object is the. For papers written for geology courses, the following “mechanics” should be. each statement as you write it can help you avoid mixing the two.
Interesting Ideas For Your Research Paper On Geology Even though individuals can respond differently to the same piece of music, listening to favorite music is good for health because music reduces stress and trials revealed that it relieves pain. Listening to favorite music is good for health because music reduces stress and trials revealed that it relieves pain. Whereas individuals can respond differently to the same piece of music, listening to favorite music is good for health given that music reduces stress. Since music reduces stress and trials revealed that it relieves pain, listening to favorite music is good for health. Listening to favorite music is good for health even though individuals can respond differently to the same piece of music. Geology requires a great amount of research to be conducted, therefore it is uneasy. The idea behind writing a research paper is to conduct a study on a topic.
Presentation Tips Geology Department - Union College Blogging The final outcome of this process is a thesis that you will normally complete in the winter term. You start by identifying a research topic, finding a research supervisor, formulating a hypothesis, understanding the background of your project, developing or adapting appropriate methods, and summarizing the state of your project as a thesis proposal. The goal here is to progress as far as possible with the elements listed before embarking on time-consuming (and possibly expensive) data collection and analysis. The more you can accomplish during the summer and fall, the further you can drive the project in the end, and hopefully the easier life will be in the winter term (for both you and us! ) The purpose of writing a thesis proposal is to demonstrate that: If you can outline these points clearly in a proposal, then you will be able to focus on a research topic and finish it in a timely fashion. A secondary purpose of the proposal is to give you experience in the art of proposal writing. Any future career in Earth or Environmental Science, whether it be in industry or academia will require these skills in some form. We are well aware that the best laid out research plans may go awry, and that the best completed theses sometimes bear only little resemblance to the thesis planned during the proposal. Therefore, when evaluating a thesis proposal, we are not trying to assure ourselves that you have clearly described a sure-fire research project with 0% risk of failure. If there was no risk of failure, it wouldn't be research. Instead, what we're interested in seeing is if you have a clear handle on the of research as it is practised by our discipline. If you can present a clear and reasonable thesis idea, if you can clearly relate it to other relevant literature, if you can justify its significance, if you can describe a method for investigating it, and if you can decompose it into a sequence of steps that lead toward a reasonable conclusion, then the thesis proposal is a success regardless of whether you modify or even scrap the actual idea down the line and start off in a different direction. What a successful thesis proposal demonstrates is that, regardless of the eventual idea you pursue, you know the steps involved in turning it into a thesis. Your thesis proposal should have the following elements in this order. However, it is difficult to write an abstract until you know your most important results. Sometimes, it is possible to write the introduction first. Most often the introduction should be written next to last. Your thesis proposal should be submitted to your supervisor and to the ENVS/GEOL 4996 coordinator, who will gather them all together, and make them available to faculty to review for two weeks. In practice, faculty members will browse them for interest, to see what you are going to be doing, but rarely make any major modification suggestions. Once you have submitted the proposal, you have agreed with your supervisor what is to be done, and you can get on with it. Delivering a talk is not the same as writing a paper and should not be treated as such. The conclusion should repeat the main thesis statement and the primary.
Thesis statements - Clarkson University Writing an abstract is an important skill, and you will need to do it time and time again, for theses, conferences, posters, grant applications as well as papers. Undergraduate and Masters students may be set a task to write an abstract as part of their degree, and will need to write one for their dissertation. People will normally read an abstract before putting in the effort to read a paper, so you need to make sure that your abstract entices people in. An abstract should succinctly summarise your work, but they can be tricky to write. In general, your abstract should cover why you did the work, what problem you were trying to solve, how you did the work (what methods you used), your key results, over-arching conclusions and the important, take-home message. You are aiming to impress upon your readers your overall findings, and to make them want to delve deeper and read your paper / project / report / thesis. You may also outline the objectives of your work here as well. Ideally you want a cite-able, quotable nugget of information that will draw people in. You will need to know your final conclusions and precise implications of your work, so leave it until the end and then work on really selling it to your readers. Write, in one sentence, why the work is important and summarise the rationale. Add a single sentence outlining the key methods used. You need to show why the work is necessary and interesting. This is not the place to give detail, but people need to know the important techniques applied in your research. Now is the place to add in the key results you found in your research. They should be succinct, accurate, clear and precise. Try to give quantifiable numbers and values, and clear data. Many people may only scan the abstract before deciding whether to read the paper, or even more importantly, to cite the results, so here is the place to give them the goodies. Avoid arm-waving, vague statements, and you don’t have space for the caveats, but you should be able to substantiate your statements. This is the place to make a statement about the take-home message of your project. How does this sit within your broader research framework? What are the implications of your research and findings? Abstracts generally come with a clear word limit (usually 200 to 350 words). Make sure you stick to this, and revise your abstract early and often. It should be the best bit of your paper – you want to draw people in. You could consider what you think people might be searching for within databases or the Internet, and including those search terms in your abstract. That might help your abstract be more easily found. Use simple sentences and avoid abbreviations and acronyms, which are a barrier to understanding. You may want to assign ‘Highlights’ or ‘Keywords’, which are sometimes requested by a journal. ‘Highlights’ are a very abbreviated abstract, usually three to four bullet points. You could follow the pointers above for your ‘Highlights’, which should arouse people’s interest and make them want to read your paper. Writing Thesis Statements & Hypotheses by Hope Matis. The thesis statement constitutes the main point of your paper. It states what you want your readers to do.
Short Essay Samples Writing Personal Statements Online We are always looking for the best sites on the web to recommend to our core group of visitors: college students. You can help by recommending websites that you feel are educational, amusing, interesting or even controversial. We are also open to link exchanges with quality websites in any category. To suggest a link In most cases the essay or paper you will write for a college level course will require a thesis statement. In fact the thesis statement is the foundation of a quality essay and a necessary component for receiving the best grade possible. Almost every argument or analysis can be distilled into a central idea if examined carefully. If you can't come up with a good thesis statement to fit the essay you are writing, the chances are good that your proposed essay itself is too broad or goes off into too many different directions and needs to be more tightly focused. It is less important to have a thesis statement in a paper that is basically descriptive (such as an essay for an art class describing a painting) or narrative (such as a paper for a history class about the life of a person). However it is still a good idea to set up the essay for the reader by including at least a modified thesis statement. : As you write and revise your essay, you might find that you need to change your Thesis Statement. It's not at all unusual to not know what your conclusions are about the topic until you think them through by writing about them. Just make sure that your final Thesis Statement matches your final draft. These ten essays have one thing in common They were all written by students. the first two one-page statements written by students in the geological sciences.
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