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Author information Biology Letters Please review the submission guidelines, guidelines for other article types, editorial and publishing policies, figure guidelines, and table guidelines. Then, refer to this checklist to ensure that you have gathered all the relevant information and that the manuscript is formatted appropriately. Are you able to sign it on behalf of all of the authors? Have you discussed the publication fees with your co-authors? Publication fees are US50 per manuscript and will be billed upon acceptance. Editors and reviewers have no access to payment information, and hence inability to pay will not influence the decision to publish a paper. If your author list includes a group author or consortium, enter its name in the free text box. Specify whether your manuscript is currently posted on a preprint server. If your submission describes primary research in the life sciences and has not already been posted as a preprint, you may opt-in to have it posted to the bio Rxiv preprint server concurrent with your submission to If you were invited to submit your paper to a PLOS Special Collection, have you reviewed the terms of submission and publication charges for PLOS Special Collections, and are you prepared to adhere to them? Have you prepared a statement indicating who funded the study, and the role of the funding agency in conducting the study and in preparing the manuscript? You will be asked to enter this into the relevant section of the submission form. Are all authors aware of, and do they approve of, the submission of the manuscript, its content, authorship, and the order of authorship? Do you have the following information for all authors? The corresponding author must provide an ORCID i D at the time of submission by entering it in the user profile in the submission system. For more information about how to register for an ORCID i D and link it to Editorial Manager, watch this short video. Do all authors agree to abide by established study guidelines (MIAME, CONSORT, STROBE, etc.)? If your article includes human or animal research, have you read and followed our policies on human subjects research and animal research, which contain further information on the Declaration of Helsinki and (PDF)? For research involving vertebrates please note, as part of the ethics statement, the guidelines followed and the committee that approved of the methods employed. Have you confirmed that anyone named in the Acknowledgments section agrees to being so named? Have you prepared a cover letter explaining why you consider this manuscript suitable for publication in PLOS Computational Biology? Are related manuscripts by any of the authors submitted or in press elsewhere? If so, are you prepared to provide a copy of each to accompany your submission? Have you identified potential editors who would be qualified to handle your submission? See the full Editorial Board list for more information, being mindful of any potential competing interests. Have you identified at least four potential reviewers whose email addresses you can provide? Please ensure that you are aware of our competing interests policy when making these suggestions, and do not suggest colleagues who may have any of these conflicts. Are there people you would prefer not to be contacted to review your submission? Provide details in the “Opposed Reviewers” section of the submission form, and include specific reasons why each person should not review your submission in each “Reason” box. The editorial team will respect these requests so long as this does not interfere with the objective and thorough assessment of the submission. Article file in DOC or RTF format, prepared per the submission guidelines. If you prepared your article using La Te X, you should upload the file in PDF format for use during the editorial/review process. If the article is accepted for publication, your files will be required. Please consult our La Te X guidelines for a list of what will be required. PLOS Computational Biology will accept initial submissions of manuscripts in a single PDF file including text and figures. If you are submitting a revised manuscript, you must upload separate files for your text, figures, and supporting information before your submission can be passed back to the editors. Include a full title (no more than 200 characters) and short title (no more than 70 characters) Include an Author Summary (no more than 200 words). Deposition of all appropriate datasets, images, and information in the relevant repositories or submission of undeposited data as supporting information files. Accession numbers for genes, proteins, mutants, diseases, etc. in parentheses after first use throughout the manuscript file Standard nomenclature used throughout the manuscript file. Non-standard abbreviations defined upon first use in the text. All figures and tables called out in the manuscript in ascending numeric order upon first appearance. Original figure files uploaded as EPS or high-resolution (300 ppi – 600 ppi) TIFF format. If any of your figures are under copyright, please notify the journal office. Any supporting information files should fall into one of the following categories: Dataset, Figure, Table, Text, Protocol, Audio, or Video. Checklist should be used for consensus guidelines for trials. Each supporting information file must be uploaded separately. The numbered title and caption for each supporting information file should be entered into the appropriate fields in the online submission system with the appropriate formatting. Open Access in Biology Letters. Authors may have their article made freely available to all, immediately upon publication, by payment of an article processing charge. Such articles are covered by a Creative Commons license allowing redistribution and re-use, and we deposit them in PubMedCentral on the author's behalf.

PLOS Computational Biology A Peer-Reviewed Open-Access Journal As stated in the constitution, the objective of the society is the advancement of the science of systematic biology in all aspects of theory, principles, methodology, and practice, for both living and fossil organisms, with emphasis on areas of common interest to all systematic biologists regardless of individual speculation. Systematics is the study of biological diversity and its origins. It focuses on understanding evolutionary relationships among organisms, species, higher taxa, or other biological entities such as genes, and the evolution of properties of taxa including intrinsic traits, ecological interactions, and geographic distributions. An important part of systematics is the development of methods for various aspects of phylogenetic inference and biological nomenclature/classification. Articles published in are original theoretical or empirical studies that explore principles and/or methods of systematics. Systematics is considered broadly to include phylogenetic studies of biogeography, paleontology, development, genes, and/or anatomical/cellular/molecular traits of taxa. Empirical papers chosen for publication are judged to be of interest to a broad systematics audience because they represent exemplary case studies involving some important contemporary issue or issues. These may be unusually thorough explorations of data, applications of new methodology, illustrations of fundamental principles, and/or investigations of particularly interesting evolutionary questions. Points of View address controversial topics of current interest to systematists, and may be presented either individually or as point/counterpoint discussions between authors with opposing views. POVs should comprise well-developed justifications for substantive differences of opinion. Please note that abstracts are now required for Points of View submissions. Software for Systematics and Evolution articles describe software or similar tools that are of general interest to and expected to be widely used by the systematics and evolutionary biology community. Book Reviews proposals may be submitted to the Book Review Editor for approval. All invited book reviews, regardless of an author's membership status, will be waived of page charges. To submit a manuscript go to our Scholar One Manuscripts Web site at and follow the instructions to log in. In case of problems, Scholar One support can be accessed through the "Get Help Now" link on the Scholar One Manuscripts Web site. They have tutorials, FAQs, and an "ask a question" screen to contact support personnel. For any additional questions or problems, contact the Editorial Office. During the submission process authors will be asked to confirm a statement that the manuscript has not been published or submitted simultaneously for publication elsewhere. Special arrangements will be made for authors unable to submit via the web; contact the Editorial Office for details. Our instructions to authors should be followed carefully before submitting a manuscript. Manuscripts not conforming to the instructions will be returned to the author(s) for adjustments before the review process can begin. The text can be submitted as either a PDF file or a Word document. We prefer document files because reviewers may wish to make suggestions using Track Changes. If the manuscript was created in La Te X, please convert to a PDF version for submission. The available La Te X templates are listed below: Points of View Regular Manuscripts Software Please note that abstracts are now required for Points of View submissions. The "create a new submission" link should be used only when submitting a manuscript never previously submitted in any form to SB. To submit either a revision or a resubmission ("resubmission" applies to manuscripts that previously received a decision of reject but with resubmission specifically noted to be permitted or encouraged), look under "manuscripts with decisions" and then use the link to create a revision or create a resubmission. This link will be accessible to the author who submitted the manuscript previously; if you need to change the author for submission then contact the Editorial Office. If your manuscript was unsubmitted by the Editorial Office due to failure to follow our instructions to authors, use the "continue submission" link after you have corrected the manuscript formatting. All datasets used in the research for the manuscript must be made available to reviewers unless the data are already published elsewhere. For manuscripts involving phylogenetic analyses, electronic copies of data sets (e.g. nucleotide sequence data and new alignments of previously published data), in nexus format, must be supplied. Data files should also be provided for morphological analyses. All data files and online-only appendices should be uploaded to Dryad using the confidential link you will receive via email immediately after submitting the other manuscript files through Manuscript Central. Please use the following text under the heading Supplementary Material when linking to data hosted on Dryad in the article: Data available from the Dryad Digital Repository: Alternative arrangements may be made for very large data files associated with studies using simulations. All nucleotide sequence data and alignments must be submitted to Gen Bank or EMBL before the paper can be published. In addition, all data matrices and resulting trees must be submitted to Tree BASE. Gen Bank and Tree BASE reference numbers should be provided in the final version of the paper. Submissions should describe new or original software or tools that provide new analytical capabilities to the end user. Submissions may also be considered that describe new versions of existing software, provided that the new version makes significant changes to function or performance (for example, a version that implements new and important methods in addition to those previously provided in a software package might be considered for publication). Publication will be determined largely based on the software or tool itself, so working links to a functional copy must be provided at the time of submission. Additional requirements: The software or tool must well documented and easy to use for the typical user. The manuscript itself must be readable by the general readership. If relevant, the manuscript must include benchmark data, or refer to Supplemental Material that includes such data. If appropriate, such benchmarking should include real biological data and a comparison with related tools. If appropriate, the submission must include working sample data files. Any software must be open source, web-distributed and free to non-commercial users. In addition, the authors must certify that they will provide support for the software or tools for a minimum of two years from the date of publication. encourages the use of GPL-like licenses and the use of open repositories, such as Source Forge or Google Code. Software for Systematics and Evolution papers should include an abstract. In general, papers will be limited to 4 printed journal pages (less than 12 double-spaced manuscript pages), but exceptions can be made when warranted. We will not enforce any specific organization of the text, but the following suggestions might help in organizing a submission: an introduction that describes the motivation; a Description section; a Benchmark section; a Biological Examples section (if applicable); a statement regarding Availability. However the manuscript is organized, please pay careful attention to the normal formatting for section headings, references, and other aspects of the journal’s style. All text, including the references section, must be double-spaced; 1.5 spacing is not acceptable. Use a very common font, such as Times New Roman, to ensure proper encoding into Scholar One Manuscripts. Use 12-point type and margins of approximately 1 inch on all sides and a non-justified (ragged) right margin. Words should not be hyphenated at the ends of lines. Limit the manuscript to the length necessary to convey the work. All paragraphs should be indented approximately 0.5 inch (1 cm) using a tab command. Papers may be unsubmitted or rejected if they are longer than necessary. Number all manuscript pages consecutively in this order: title, authors and abstract; text; acknowledgements; references; appendices. Throughout all stages of the review process all figures and tables must be mentioned in order and need to be embedded in the text. The word "Figure" should be spelled out if it appears in a sentence, but abbreviated "(Fig.)" if it appears in parentheses. Figure portions should always be referred to using lowercase letters, for example, (Fig. When an acronym or symbol is used in table or figure captions, it must be defined (even if it is also defined in the text) in the first table caption and first figure caption in which it is used. Once a paper is accepted the separate figure and table files will be required. Scientific names of organisms are to be given the first time the organisms are mentioned. Genus and species names in the text, abstract, tables, and figures must be italicized. Guidelines for nomenclature and abbreviations of proteins and protein-encoding loci should be followed. Our abbreviation for millions of years ago is Ma; our abbreviation for millions of years duration (not necessarily in the past) is Myr. Contributions should be in English and clearly written. Papers not clearly written may be returned for rewriting prior to review. In general, the recommendations of The title page should be submitted as a separate file, rather than as part of the main document, because it will not be published online as part of the accepted manuscript. If you are using La Te X, please provide the title page as a standard Word document, as the La Te X template does not include a title page. Title page information should appear in the following format: Running head (a short title not greater than 50 characters, in all capital letters); title (in capital and lowercase letters, each important word beginning with a capital letter); authors (all on one line, or more if necessary, with superscript numbers used to match authors to addresses); and full correspondence addresses (in italic font). Add e-mail addresses if you wish them to be published. Identify the name, address, telephone/fax numbers, and e-mail address for the author who will receive proofs and be designated the "corresponding author" in text. The title and author information should also be included in the main document: title (in capital and lowercase letters, each important word beginning with a capital letter); authors (all on one line, or more if necessary, with superscript numbers used to match authors to addresses); and full correspondence addresses (in italic font). Add e-mail addresses if you wish them to be published. Identify the name, address, telephone/fax numbers, and e-mail address for the author who will receive proofs and be designated the "corresponding author" in text. The abstract should be formatted in the same manner as the rest of the text. It should be concise and contain the most interesting findings from the paper. Avoid abbreviations and citations in the abstract if possible. If possible, please include running heads in the main document. The running head on even pages should be the author short list; the running head on odd pages (beginning on page 3 if possible) should be the short title (not greater than 50 characters, in all capital letters). .—First level: Capital and small capitals; each important word should begin with a capital letter. Second level: Capital and lowercase letters, each important word should begin with a capital letter, italic font. Third level: Paragraph indented, capital and lowercase letters, only the first word and proper nouns should begin with capital letters, italic font, followed by a period and a long dash (em dash), run into text. .—References are cited in the text as: Jones (1970); (Jones 1970); or (Jones 1970; Smith 1976, 1978) with citations that are in parenthetical groups listed in chronological order. Literature Cited is listed in a References section, with abbreviations for serial (journal) names following the American National Standard. Serial Sources for the BIOSIS Database, which is provided with Biological Abstracts, lists abbreviations for most serials. All references cited in text must be listed in the References section, and vise versa. In the References section, all authors should be listed (no et al. A dash should NOT be used in place of an author's name repeated from the preceding entry; provide name of author in each subsequent citation. Details of established internal style for citations should be followed, particularly relating to order of parts, capitalization, and proper forms of abbreviation. Full page ranges should be provided for cited chapters in books and for journal articles. Works "in press" may be included only if a known year and source of publication can be included. The year of publication can be added as late as the proofs stage of your manuscript. Otherwise no unpublished material may be cited (e.g., "in prep." and "unpublished data") unless special permission is obtained from the Editor. When uploading the files to Scholar One Manuscripts you can indicate which you intend for print vs. online, but the final decision will be up to the Editor-in-Chief. Appendices should be referred to as, for example, "Appendix 1" or "online Appendix 1." Please mention online appendices or other supplemental material in the text. Consider using color in online appendices and supplemental material if it would aid the reader’s understanding, as there is no charge for color online. .—A table title should be typed in capital and lowercase letters. Symbols and abbreviations should be defined in the table footnotes even if they are also defined in the text (however, if they are used in subsequent tables it may be acceptable to define them only in the first table). Tables are the only exception to the rule that footnotes cannot be used in SB papers. Table footnotes should be designated by superscript lowercase letters. with shading of columns) can be accommodated by the publisher. Each footnote should be shown in the table body and should appear with a brief explanation below the table. Tables as document files are preferred, but we can also accept tables as Excel files. Footnotes should be labeled in order, starting at the upper left corner of the table and working vertically and horizontally to the lower right corner (as you would read a book). For initial submissions please embed tables in the manuscript; for any revised versions please submit separate table files. .—For highest figure quality we strongly prefer figures in vector format rather than bitmap. If bitmapped figures are necessary, such as photographs, the resolution should be 600 ppi. When viewed in Scholar One Manuscripts, all files are converted to PDF, which can reduce clarity. (The PDF file created by Scholar One Manuscripts is not used for print, only for the review process.) At the end of the submission sequence you will be asked to view the PDF file. Please check the figures, and enlarge them if necessary for easy legibility; for example, if a figure has two portions it might be best to make each portion into separate figures. On figures, use only common sans-serif fonts, such as Geneva, Helvetica, or Arial. Figures should be completely labeled; for example, each axis in a graph should be labeled and include units. No box should be drawn around a graph or other figure. All line weights should be 1 pt thick or close to it (0.5 is the minimum, reserved for cases in which thin lines are necessary to the legibility of the figure). If a figure has multiple portions they should be referred to in the caption, the text of the paper, and on the figure using lowercase letters. On the figure these letters should be placed in the upper left corner of each portion of the figure, and should be followed by a single parenthesis, e.g., "a)" rather than enclosed in double parentheses. For initial submissions please embed figures in the manuscript and use continuous line numbers; for any revised versions please submit the figures and tables as separate files. When designing figures, please keep in mind that each figure will be made either single or double column width. Abbreviations used on figures must be defined in the figure caption even if already defined in the text. If the same abbreviations are used in subsequent figures it may be acceptable to define them only on first occurrence. Figures must be submitted as .tif, .eps, .ppt, .xls, .pdf, .gif, or files. Contact the Editorial Office if you are not able to provide figures in one of the acceptable formats. allows authors to deposit the submitted version of their paper in preprint servers. We ask that once a paper is accepted and published, the preprint entry is updated to include the full citation line, DOI, and link to the version of record. For the full self-archiving policy, please click here. To revise your manuscript after receiving a decision email from the Editor-in-Chief, log onto Scholar One Manuscripts and enter the Author Center, where you should find your manuscript title listed under "Manuscripts with Decisions." Under "Actions," click on "Create a Revision." You will be unable to make your revisions on the originally-submitted version of the manuscript. Instead, revise your manuscript on your computer, delete the old files on Scholar One Manuscripts, and upload the new files. For the final revision, manuscripts must be submitted as document (not PDF) files. Your response to reviewer comments must be put in the space indicated in Scholar One Manuscripts. Do not include it only in the cover letter, although you may include the response in both areas if desired. .—For the final version, please upload the actual files (.tex, .bib, style, etc.) in addition to a PDF file of the text. The La Te X files will be used for typesetting although the copyeditor will use the PDF for formatting inquiries. In any case, the figures must each be separate files and follow the instructions for figures given above. When uploading the files, please designate all La Te X files as well as the PDF file in the "main document" category. Upon receipt of accepted manuscripts at Oxford Journals authors will be invited to complete an online copyright licence to publish form. Please note that by submitting an this article for publication you confirm that you are the corresponding/submitting author and that Oxford University Press ("OUP") may retain your email address for the purpose of communicating with you about the article. You agree to notify OUP immediately if your details change. If your article is accepted for publication OUP will contact you using the email address you have used in the registration process. Please note that OUP does not retain copies of rejected articles. Authors are responsible for obtaining permission to reproduce copyrighted material form other sources before acceptance, and once the paper is accepted they are required to give an exclusive license to publish to the Society of Systematic Biologists (SSB). authors have the option to publish their paper under the Oxford Open initiative; whereby, for a charge, their paper will be made freely available online immediately upon publication. After your manuscript is accepted the corresponding author will be required to accept a mandatory licence to publish agreement. As part of the licensing process you will be asked to indicate whether or not you wish to pay for open access. If you do not select the open access option, your paper will be published with standard subscription-based access and you will not be charged. Oxford Open articles are published under Creative Commons licences. Authors publishing in can use the following Creative Commons licences for their articles: Creative Commons Attribution licence (CC BY) Creative Commons Non-Commercial licence (CC BY-NC) You can pay Open Access charges using our Author Services site. This will enable you to pay online with a credit/debit card, or request an invoice by email or post. The open access charges applicable are: Regular charge - £1000/ 00 / €1300 Reduced Rate Developing country charge* - £500 / 0 / €650 Free Developing country charge* - £0 /Меню / €0 *Visit our Developing Countries page for a list of qualifying countries Please note that these charges are in addition to any colour/page charges that may apply. Orders from the UK will be subject to the current UK VAT charge. For orders from the rest of the European Union, OUP will assume that the service is provided for business purposes. Please provide a VAT number for yourself or your institution, and ensure you account for your own local VAT correctly. Once published under the open access model, this article will be distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Advance Access is the journal's system for the rapid online publication of articles ahead of the printed issue. Manuscripts are published online as soon as possible after they have been accepted. Beginning August 2011 accepted manuscripts are published online before copyediting and formatting have been carried out. This version is indicated by the text 'Accepted Manuscript' above the article details on our Advance Access page. A second version, which has been copyedited, typeset, and author-corrected, is then also published online ahead of print; this version is indicated by the text 'Corrected Proof'. Appearance of the accepted manuscript in Advance Access constitutes official publication, and the Advance Access version can be cited by a unique doi (digital object identifier). The final version is published as part of an issue. An illustration is featured on the cover of each issue, the cost of which is borne by the journal. Authors are encouraged to submit high-quality photographs for possible use as a cover illustration. Necessary permissions should be cleared with all third parties. Please see here and visit https://com/journals/pages/access_purchase for more information about obtaining rights. Please provide a brief caption and include a credit for the photographer or artist (please follow instructions from third parties on crediting if specific instructions are given when permissions are obtained). Please e-mail Systematic Biology Production for instructions on how to submit a cover image. Final cover figures will be chosen on the basis of attractiveness and general interest in addition to being related to an article in that issue. Color figures should be submitted in CMYK color format. If you convert from RGB please look at your figure again because some colors display slightly differently in the two modes. The publisher has the right to refuse publication of any artwork of unacceptable quality. is happy to announce the launch of the Flexible Color Option, beginning for all articles published in the 2009 volume. All figures submitted to the journal in color will be published in color online at no cost (unless the author specifically requests that their figures be in black and white online). Authors may choose to also publish their figures in color in the print journal for £350/€525/0 per figure; you will be asked to approve this cost in an e-mail after your article is accepted for publication. You will be issued an invoice at the time of print publication. Authors are normally expected to cover the cost of printing in color but we do have limited funds available to assist authors who cannot pay. If you article contains color figures that must appear in print, please let us know if you will unable to afford the cost at submission. The fee does not apply to images chosen by the Editor to be on the cover of the journal. Systematic Biology charges /£40/€45 per published page. Members of the Society for Systematic Biologists (SSB) are exempt from these charges. Membership of SSB starts from with discounts for students, and provides a range of benefits in addition to free publication in the journal. To join SSB please click here, and to find out more about SSB click here. Please note that page charges are not waived automatically. After your article has been published, you will receive an email notification reminding you that page and/or color charges are due. In order for page charges to be waived, please log into Author Services after you receive this email notification and enter your SSB membership number. Please then 'Finish' or ‘Proceed to Checkout’ and the system will recognize page charges as waived. These must be returned within 2 business days to avoid delays in publication of the corrected proof. Authors should not expect to make major modifications to their work at this stage. To avoid delays, authors should notify the Production Editor of any address changes. If the author will be out of email contact for several days, an alternative contact person authorized to correct proofs should be identified prior to the author’s absence. The publisher is unable to make corrections to figures. If the author wishes to make corrections to figures, new, corrected figures must be returned with the proofs. The journal will provide authors with a URL for free access to the published version of the article. Authors are urged to order offprints prior to publication of the corrected proof to cover anticipated needs; reordering after the issue has been published is considerably more expensive. Offprints can be ordered in increments of 50 using the Oxford Journals Author Services site, a link to which is sent by email when your paper enters production. At the point of submission, 's policy requires that each author reveal any financial interests or connections, direct or indirect, or other situations that might raise the question of bias in the work reported or the conclusions, implications, or opinions stated—including pertinent commercial or other sources of funding for the individual author(s) or for the associated department(s) or organization(s), personal relationships, or direct academic competition. When considering whether you should declare a conflicting interest or connection please consider the conflict of interest test: Is there any arrangement that would embarrass you or any of your co-authors if it was to emerge after publication and you had not declared it? As an integral part of the online submission process, corresponding authors are required to confirm whether they or their co-authors have any conflicts of interest to declare, and to provide details of these. It is the corresponding author’s responsibility to ensure that all authors adhere to this policy. Details of all funding sources for the work in question should be given in a separate section entitled 'Funding'. This should appear before the 'Acknowledgements' section. The following rules should be followed: The sentence should begin: ‘This work was supported by …’ The full official funding agency name should be given, i.e.‘the National Cancer Institute at the National Institutes of Health’ or simply 'National Institutes of Health' not ‘NCI' (one of the 27 subinstitutions) or 'NCI at NIH’ (full RIN-approved list of UK funding agencies) Grant numbers should be complete and accurate and provided in brackets as follows: ‘(grant number ABX CDXXXXXX)’ Multiple grant numbers should be separated by a comma as follows: ‘(grant numbers ABX CDXXXXXX, EFX GHXXXXXX)’ Agencies should be separated by a semi-colon (plus ‘and’ before the last funding agency) Where individuals need to be specified for certain sources of funding the following text should be added after the relevant agency or grant number 'to [author initials]'. R.); and the Alcohol & Education Research Council (hfygr667789).’ Oxford Journals will deposit all NIH-funded articles in Pub Med Central. An example is given here: ‘This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health (P50 CA098252 and CA118790 to R. See https://com/journals/pages/authors for details. Authors must ensure that manuscripts are clearly indicated as NIH-funded using the guidelines above. In order to meet your funding requirements authors are required to name their funding sources, or state if there are none, during the submission process. For further information on this process or to find out more about the CHORUS initiative please click here. Editors and reviewers have no access to payment information, and hence inability to pay will not influence the decision to publish a paper. Read more about publication fees. Cover letter. Have you prepared a cover letter explaining why you consider this manuscript suitable for publication in PLOS Computational Biology?

Guide for authors - Journal of Theoretical Biology - ISSN 0022-5193 Effective 10/1/15, all new hires must present their Social Security card to the Business Office. New hires who do not have a Social Secuity card must present it as soon as one is obtained. Also, a Social Securiy card does fulfill the I-9 document requirement for List C(Documents that Establish Employment Authorization). Authors should thus make it clear how any mathematical models relate to the biological problems they address; detailed mathematical technicalities and experimental procedures may. Each manuscript should be accompanied by an electronic cover letter outlining the basic findings of the paper and their significance.

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(*) Members in good status (membership fees settled) of the following scientific societies: European Society for Mathematical and Theoretical Biology (ESMTB), European Mathematical Society (EMS), Sociedade Portuguesa de Matemática (SPM), Society for Mathematical Biology (SMB). For cross-checking purposes, please tick the appropriate society(ies) box(es) in the registration form. (**) Please include a letter from your supervisor confirming your student status. Payments For fee payment, please use your personal area. Choose your fee category and comply with its deadline for payment. The platform is prepared to issue your invoice on-line. All fees are in Euros (€), free of VAT, according to Portuguese legislation (article 9 VAT Code). In the case of payment by bank transfer, please note that we must receive the total value free of bank charges. NOTE: If you are contributing with a poster or a talk at a contributed session or at a minisymposium, please pay the registration fee before June 1, 2018, for otherwise your contribution cannot be included in the final program of the Conference. Cancellation Policy: Requests for registration cancellations and refunds must be submitted in writing to the Secretariat of the Conference ([email protected]) not later than June 1st, 2018. No refund requests will be granted after that date. An administrative €50 fee will be deducted from all registration refunds. How should Biology Letters be cited. Articles published in Biology Letters between 1st Jan 2005 and 31 December 2012 should be cited as follows. The service offers authors the opportunity to pay a fee to have their paper made freely available on the web immediately if it is accepted for publication by any Royal.

General Instructions Systematic Biology Oxford Academic A: ARTS was replaced by the Degree Progress Report (DPR) in 2012. The DPR presents most of the same information that the ARTS form had (and sometimes more information) but in a more user-friendly format. The DPR is available through students' My Progress section of the my KU portal and is available in three different forms. Q: If I need to write a letter of recommendation for a student, and I want the closest thing to the ARTS form to help me in judging the student's academic performance, what should I ask the student to give me? A: Ask the student for her/his "Print Advising Report," which is available through the student's My Progress portal. The Print Advising Report provides basic information about the student's major, including GPA, as well as a list of courses with grades. Additionally, entrance exam scores are given in this report. A: Students typically should choose the degree requirements that were in effect for the academic term when they first entered KU. However, students may choose to follow the most current degree requirements, in which case they can generate a "What If" Degree Progress Report (DPR) using the most recent term for degree requirements. The College now has a time limit policy concerning degree requirements: "Students readmitted 10 years or more after the initial term of degree-seeking admission to KU must fulfill all current requirements (this includes general education, major, minor, and all other related policies) to earn a degree."A: There are several holds that students may see on their accounts. Here is a brief description of academic holds: ADV-GRAD – Candidate for Graduation hold. Students receive this hold once they have 75 credit hours; the hold seems to be meant to have students begin thinking about graduation requirements. Students must read the accompanying Academic Notice in the My Progress portal to click on a link to an online degree progress assessment. The hold will be removed by a College graduation advisor after the assessment is completed, normally in 1-2 business days. All students in the College receive this hold to assure that students receive at least two semesters of advising. Jen Weghorst ([email protected]) and Greg Burg ([email protected]) are able to remove this hold. We will need confirmation that you met with the student and the student’s KUID number. ADV-CSRD – Non-declared major hold ("crossroads" hold). Students who have not yet declared a major after their first two semesters receive this hold. The notice will give instructions on how to lift this hold. A: On our web page, we have a link entitled "Advising", and faculty advisors are listed according to their expertise in one or more major areas. If you would like to change your advising designation(s), please contact Jen Weghorst ([email protected]). A: KU's Lawrence campus pre-medical advisors maintain an extensive pre-medical advising website for various pre-health professions. There are links within the various pages for required and recommended courses. A: Contact Greg Burg ([email protected]) and Jen Weghorst ([email protected]), and/or refer students to contact them. Please be aware that community college courses cannot transfer as Jr/Sr hours, even if they might satisfy a particular Jr/Sr course requirement. If you have questions about how to complete this form, which is also available in the UBP office, or about degree requirements for students, please contact either Greg Burg ([email protected]) or Jen Weghorst ([email protected]). A: Yes, faculty may substitute courses within the "General Science Requirements" and major course sections (e.g., "Biochemistry Course Requirements") for all majors. KU Core courses may not be substituted except through the student's submitting a petition to the KU Core curriculum committee. A: BIOL 646 Mammalian Physiology may not be substituted for BIOL 408 Physiology of Organisms. BIOL 636 Biochemistry I may not be substituted for BIOL 600 Introductory Biochemistry, Lectures. However, BIOL 636 may be combined with BIOL 638 Biochemistry II to substitute for BIOL 600. For other substitution questions, please contact either Greg Burg ([email protected]) or Jen Weghorst ([email protected]). A: Students need both a KU (not including transfer credit) GPA and a Major Jr/Sr Hour GPA greater than or equal to 2.00. The Degree Progress Report (DPR)'s final two sections provide both these GPAs. Courses contributing to the Major Jr/Sr Hour GPA would be courses numbered 300 or above not included in the KU Core or General Science Requirements sections of that particular major (see our degree requirement check sheets or the DPR). The courses included in this GPA calculation vary across our majors. A: Our students may choose to take up to one course each semester Credit/No Credit as long as it is not classified as a major course. Courses that are designated as major courses vary with the particular major. If you refer to one of our biology degree requirement checksheets, or to the Degree Progress Report (DPR)/Degree Requirement Checklist, you'll see the broad classifications of KU Core and General Science Requirements. These two areas do not contain courses that are classified as major courses. A: Students with two majors must complete at least 15 credit hours in each major (i.e., not in KU Core or General Science Requirements) that are unique (i.e., not satisfying a major requirement) to that major. Please keep in mind that students are not double majoring if they complete more than one subplan of the BS Biology major (e.g., EEOB MCDB) or more than one concentration of the BA Human Biology major (e.g., Anthropology Psychology). Typically, students choose to double major in the same degree tracks: BA BA or BS BS. However, some students are able to complete the required courses for both a BA and BS major in a timely fashion, particularly if they are entering KU with many hours of AP/IB or transfer credit. Blackboard has some major changes that began with the Fall 2013 semester, most notably the automatic Blackboard course creation for every course for which you're listed as an instructor. These automatically-created sites, however, do not contain content from your previous semesters' course sites, nor will they be made available automatically to your students. A: You can change a student's grade online through your Enroll & Pay Grade Roster up to a year after the course. After one year has passed, a paper Change of Grade Form is needed (please contact either Greg Burg ([email protected]) or Jen Weghorst ([email protected]). A: You may select "I" in your course Grade Roster through Enroll & Pay. Grade Roster Incomplete (pdf) No additional paperwork is necessary to assign an "I". Please see the policy below and note that after one year, "I"s lapse to "F"s or to the grade you specify as the default when originally assigning an "I," and changing the lapsed grade requires a petition process that involves both the student and you. Policy on incompletes from the College of Liberal Arts & Sciences policies. The letter I indicates incomplete work, such as may be completed without re-enrollment in the course. The letter I should not be used when a definite grade can be assigned for the work done. It is not given for the work of a student in any course except to indicate that some part of the work has, for reasons beyond the student's control, not been done, while the rest has been satisfactorily completed. At the time an I is reported on the electronic roster, the character and amount of work needed, as well as the date required for completion and lapse grade if further work is not completed by this date, should be indicated. A student who has an I posted for a course must make up the work by the date determined by the instructor, in consultation with the student, which may not exceed 1 calendar year, or the last day of the term of graduation, whichever comes first. An I not removed according to this rule automatically converts to a grade of F or U, or the lapse grade assigned by the course instructor, and appears on the student's record. Extensions to the time limit may be granted by the dean's representative upon submission of a petition from the student containing the endorsement of the course instructor who assigned the I grade, or the department chairperson if the instructor is unavailable. After the I grade is converted to a grade of F or U, the grade may only be changed in accordance with USRR Article II, Section 3. A: Students are not to re-enroll in a course in which they are receiving an "I." Arrangements need to be made with the current instructor and the future instructor regarding Blackboard, being on the second semester's roster, etc. A: For biology teaching technological support, contact Patty Krueger ([email protected]) in the BTRC (Biology Teaching Resource Center). For information on using technology in the classroom (e.g., "clickers," Blackboard, etc.), see Instructional Development and Support (IDS). For strategies and support for teaching, see the Center for Teaching Excellence. However the manuscript is organized, please pay careful attention to the normal formatting for section headings, references, and other aspects of the journal's style. The title and author information should also be included in the main document title in capital and lowercase letters, each important word beginning with a.

Conservation Biology - Wiley Online Library IB offers students the opportunity of participating in the research being conducted in the laboratories of its faculty members and other affiliated researchers. This may involve anything from collecting data in the field to doing experiments in the lab. It may involve assisting a faculty member, postdoc, or senior graduate student with ongoing experiments or may involve independent research no one has ever undertaken before. You can earn academic credit for your research by signing up for IB 199, IB 390, or IB 490. You must have the approval of the faculty member in whose laboratory you will work before doing this. The faculty member will discuss with you an appropriate number of credit hours to sign up for. Recognize that you can work in the lab of a professor who may not have a primary appointment in one of the SIB departments (Animal Biology, Entomology, Plant Biology). Click here to see a more detailed discussion of working with non-SIB faculty or non-faculty researchers. Many students want to get involved in an undergraduate research project, but simply don't know where to start! IB Faculty are offering IB 199 to help students do just that. Students work in small groups in a research lab, where the faculty member teaches common skills for success in any research project. Students are also part of a weekly seminar including readings of primary research and presentations from other students. It's a great way to get some experience doing research! IB 390 is the basic introductory research course designed to give students exposure to a research laboratory. Students work under the supervision of faculty and graduate students to contribute to the lab's ongoing research projects. IB 490 is an independent project that a student undertakes to gain experience in designing and completing a research project. Students must have already gained basic research lab experience before beginning a 490 project. This course requires a report to be submitted during the last semester, which is graded. This report may be submitted for graduation with Distinction, but this is not required. The best reason is that it will give you unparalleled insight into the methods used to generate all that information presented to you in formal classes. It will also give you an opportunity to become part of the scientific process itself. Here are some additional reasons: You can expect a lot of hard work and, with that and a little luck, the exhilaration of making a discovery no one else in the world has made. In practical terms, you can expect to earn 1-4 hours of credit in a semester and work from a few to more than 10 hours per week in a laboratory. The credit hours you earn and the hours you are expected to put in will be determined by the faculty member in whose laboratory you will work. You should discuss these matters when you first talk to the faculty member. The person supervising your project will expect you to show the same dedication to the project you work on as the graduate students and others in the lab do. This may mean coming in to the lab or going to the field at odd hours, including nights and weekends if required. It may mean attending lab meetings with other members of the laboratory. It will certainly mean reading primary research articles related to the research and learning the scientific basis of the research you are conducting. Some laboratories hire undergraduates as paid assistants, but you should not expect the same kind of experience as an assistant as you would have doing independent research. Furthermore, if you are a paid assistant, you will not receive academic credit for your research. On the other hand, it may be possible for you to obtain financial assistance while you are doing independent academic research. Check out the undergraduate support web page for more details. IB offers three levels of Distinction, each of which may be earned only by completing a research project and presenting it as a formal written report. Submission of a manuscript to Conservation Biology implies it has not been published previously and is not being considered for publication elsewhere see also, Preprint Policy below. At the time of submission, describe in the cover letter any data, figures, or text in the manuscript that have been published or that are in.

Letters Nature Cell Biology It is a science that studies various characteristics of living systems. Nevertheless, defining the notion of a living system is a rather complicated thing to do. That is exactly why scientists have determined several criteria, according to which an organism is thought out to be alive. The main components out of these criteria are metabolism, self-reproduction, and self-regulation. Notion 'science' is being formed as a sphere of human activity towards acquisition and systematization of objective knowledge about reality. In compliance with this term, an object of the given science is life in all its aspects and forms, and also on various levels. Mind these methods to complete your biology homework assignments successfully. Some of them are universal for all sciences, for example, such as observation, hypothesis advancement and control, construction of a theory. Other scientific methods can be used only when conducting research in specific branches of sciences, such as genealogy, hybridization, culture technique of tissues, etc. Although, there is one thing that is common for all scientific methods, and it is biology critical thinking that should be possessed by every expert in the given field. You are always enjoying your classes and want to become an expert in the given sphere? Then there are no doubts that you will face biology resume writing in your future. If you do not have enough time to complete these important papers together with your current task, it is absolutely normal to consult concerning these issues. Our highly qualified writers will help you not only to complete your biology homework successfully, but also write term paper within the stipulated deadline. The science is closely connected with other scholarships, such as chemistry, physics, ecology, geography and, at the same time, is subdivided into a great number of specific sciences studying different biological objects: phytobiology and animal life science, phytophysiology, morphology, genetics, taxonomy, selection, mycology, helminthology and many others. While writing a biology essay, one should remember that method is a way of research, passed by a scientist or a student, who solve any scientific task or a problem. There are numerous methods, and it is important to choose one that will be most effectively used during the information gathering phase. To complete a successful biology research paper, it is necessary to pay attention to the following scientific methods: Choice of topics and composition of an outline are compulsory elements of biology assignment writing. Here, one formulates his thesis statement - the main argument. You have to check whether every paragraph refers to the topic of your biology coursework. While using an outline, a student is not distracted by trivia and inconspicuous details. In such a manner, outline alongside with an abstract can help us focus on the key point. Being under temporary pressure, you will not have enough time to improvise. Instead, you need to be ready to complete a biology term paper assignment, to work out your own strategy and series of steps that will give you the possibility to cope with this assignment quickly. Life science is a system of sciences, which objects under study are living beings and their intercommunication with the surrounding environment. It explores all aspects of life, in particular, such as structure, function, growth, origin, evolution, and classification of living organisms on Earth. The study classifies and describes living objects, its origin, interaction between them and with the environment. You are interested in this sphere, and you have an assignment to write an essay? At the same time, you are extremely busy with a pile of other urgent things to do? can provide you with the most qualified biology homework help. Our crew of professional writers will undertake a biological study for you and complete your paper with all indicated requirements on time. Do not hesitate and buy your biology thesis paper safely at Thus, you will not need to make the Internet search typing "do my biology homework", "custom coursework writing", etc. If some questions still remain, feel free to ask us in chat, we will be glad to help you 24/7. Ask us for assistance even if you do not know how to write biology cover letter. Oct 30, 2017. Browse the archive of articles on Nature Cell Biology.

Author information <b>Biology</b> <b>Letters</b>
PLOS Computational <b>Biology</b> A Peer-Reviewed Open-Access Journal
Guide for authors - Journal of Theoretical <em>Biology</em> - ISSN 0022-5193
Frequently asked questions <strong>Biology</strong> <strong>Letters</strong>
General Instructions Systematic <em>Biology</em> Oxford Academic
Conservation <strong>Biology</strong> - Wiley Online Library
<strong>Letters</strong> Nature Cell <strong>Biology</strong>

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