Want a job? Stop complaining and start solving someone else's. The missing dollar riddle is a famous riddle that involves an informal fallacy. It dates back to at least the 1930's, although similar puzzles are much older. Understandably, many people discount what I have to say because I am a. Then I asked my boss, “How can I make more money than Bob?”. Although I'm not being paid to solve problems rht now, I still must keep at it or.
PromisePay Is Solving Probably The Bgest Problem Of Online. Value Chain Analysis is a useful tool for working out how you can create the greatest possible value for your customers. In business, we're paid to take raw inputs, and to "add value" to them by turning them into something of worth to other people. When online payments first began over three decade ago, many doubted it. PromisePay Is Solving Probably The Bgest Problem Of Online Payments Trust. I started my career in the corporate professional services industry in Sydney. The buyer and seller can then agree on a discount, refunding that.
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Hackathon Guide Value Chain Analysis is a useful tool for working out how you can create the greatest possible value for your customers. In business, we're paid to take raw inputs, and to "add value" to them by turning them into something of worth to other people. This is easy to see in manufacturing, where the manufacturer "adds value" by taking a raw material of little use to the end user (for example, wood pulp) and converting it into something that people are prepared to pay money for (e.g. But this idea is just as important in service industries, where people use inputs of time, knowledge, equipment, and systems to create services of real value to the person being served – the customer. And remember that your customers aren't necessarily outside your organization: they can be your bosses, your co-workers, or the people who depend on you for what you do. Now, this is really important: in most cases, the more value you create, the more people will be prepared to pay a good price for your product or service, and the more they will keep on buying from you. On a personal level, if you add a lot of value to your team, you will excel in what you do. You should then expect to be rewarded in line with your contribution. So how do you find out where you, your team or your company can create value? This is where the "Value Chain Analysis" tool is useful. Value Chain Analysis helps you identify the ways in which you create value for your customers, and then helps you think through how you can maximize this value: whether through superb products, great services, or jobs well done. At an organizational level, this will include the step-by-step business processes that you use to serve the customer. These will include marketing of your products or services; sales and order-taking; operational processes; delivery; support; and so on (this may also involve many other steps or processes specific to your industry). At a personal or team level, it will involve the step-by-step flow of work that you carry out. For example: If you carry out the brainstorming behind the Activity Analysis and Value Analysis with your team, you'll almost certainly get a richer answer than if you do it on your own. You may also find that your team is more likely to "buy into" any conclusions you draw from the exercise. After all, the conclusions will be as much theirs as yours. Once you've brainstormed the activities which add value for your company, list them. A useful way of doing this is to lay them out as a simplified flow chart running down the page – this gives a good visual representation of your "value chain." You can see an example of this in Figure 1 below. Now, for each activity you've identified, list the "Value Factors" – the things that your customers value in the way that each activity is conducted. For example, if you're thinking about a telephone order-taking process, your customer will value a quick answer to his or her call; a polite manner; efficient taking of order details; fast and knowledgeable answering of questions; and an efficient and quick resolution to any problems that arise. If you're thinking about delivery of a professional service, your customer will most likely value an accurate and correct solution; a solution based on completely up-to-date information; a solution that is clearly expressed and easily actionable; and so on. Next to each activity you've identified, write down these Value Factors. And next to these, write down what needs to be done or changed to provide great value for each Value Factor. By the time you've completed your Value Analysis, you'll probably be fired up for action: you'll have generated plenty of ideas for increasing the value you deliver to customers. And if you could deliver all of these, your service could be fabulous! Now be a bit careful at this stage: you could easily fritter your energy away on a hundred different jobs, and never really complete any of them. Others will deliver only marginal improvements, but at great cost. And then prioritize the remaining tasks and plan to tackle them in an achievable, step-by-step way that delivers steady improvement at the same time that it keeps your team enthusiastic. So firstly, pick out the quick, easy, cheap wins – go for some of these, as this will improve your team's spirits no end. If you have a strong enough relationship with one or more of your customers, it may be worth presenting your conclusions to them and getting their feedback – this is a good way of either confirming that you're right or of getting a better understanding of what they really want. Lakshmi is a software development manager for a software house. She and her team handle short software enhancements for many clients. As part of a team development day, she and her team use Value Chain Analysis to think about how they can deliver excellent service to their clients. During the Activity Analysis part of the session, they identify the following activities that create value for clients: You can see these in the "Value Factors" column of figure 1. They then look at what they need to do to deliver the maximum value to the customer. These things are shown in the Figure 1's "Changes Needed" column. Once all brainstorming is complete, Lakshmi and her team may be able to identify quick wins, reject low yield or high cost options, and agree their priorities for implementation. Value Chain Analysis is a useful way of thinking through the ways in which you deliver value to your customers, and reviewing all of the things you can do to maximize that value. It takes place as a three stage process: This site teaches you the skills you need for a happy and successful career; and this is just one of many tools and resources that you'll find here at Mind Tools. Subscribe to our free newsletter, or join the Mind Tools Club and really supercharge your career! The ideas have been inspired by many individuals, especially including my Open. Think of the hackathon as a pit-stop on a long journey to solve problems or as a. Pizza is the cheapest food to get, but it's also basiy the worst thing you can. You may want to reserve a section of the bar they may ask for a payment.
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Are You Solving the Rht Problem? - Harvard Business Review Big6 is a six-stage model to help anyone solve problems or make decisions by using information. Some call it information literacy, information communication, or ICT skills, or a process, but we call it the Big6. Using the Big6 information literacy process, you will identify information research goals, seek, use, and assemble relevant, credible information, then to reflect— is the final product effective and was my process efficient. The Big6 information literacy process is completely transferable to any grade level, subject area, or workplace. Big6, state and national instructional standards, and your curriculum all work together hand-in-hand. Check these out - #1 –What is Information Literacy? v=l9UXEDNP1lc #2 – How To Implement an Information Literacy Program - https:// v=Ac ROQru5ij A #3 – Accountability and Assessment of Information Literacy https:// v=JH296Ri R5I4 #4 – The Role of the Teacher-Librarian in Information Literacy https:// The 8 projects include: Animal Project Fiction Book Report Nonfiction Book Report Current Events Project Place (Geography) Project How To Project Five Senses Project Science Research Project. v=n E2Mpv Byblc The Super3™ Discovery Project Blackline Masters are designed for young learners in preschool through third grade. Each Discovery Project contains an instructor’s guide with the following components: Objective/Purpose; Context for Use; Ideas for Teaching and Learning; Extension Activities; and a Project Overview that outlines each step of the Super3 process as it relates to the given project. Click HERE to order or use this url - https://big6-store.squarespace.com/blackline-masters/ Hi Big6-ers! The Big6 is about empowering individuals to solve problems and communicate. The development of student voice--not just acknowledging that students may have opinions or feedback--but developing student voice and confidence in speaking are key to Big6 Stage 5 - Synthesis. Here's a piece from Edutopia that sparked my thinking on this topic today: I love being suprised. I have been watching them since the dawn of Food TV, and later, with the addition of Top Chef, binge watching competitive cooking shows. So, imagine how proud I felt when I came across a whole bunch of Super3 Power Point presentations on Slide Share - I was on Slideshare for something else and did a quick search for Super3. Emeril, Bobby, Mario, Tyler, Alton, Mary Sue and Susan, Giada, Padma--all big personalities and risk takers. Fast forward to this past year when I discovered Alton Brown's " Cutthroat Kitchen." My whole family enjoys watching aspiring chefs get sabotaged and more-or-less successfully overcoming some crazy things that get thrown their way. So what does this have to do with my obsession with growing students who have the information and problem solving skills to ensure success? The fundamental keys to success in this kitchen game of sabotaging and adjusting are solid culinary skills and practice. If the chef doesn't really know how to cook, it is hard to adjust when the game board spins and you're faced with an unexpected challenge. I think it is even difficult to implement a creative strategy to win if you can't even approach the food, the tools, or the environment. The winners aren't the chefs who take away the most cash--they are the chefs who adjust and make the best tasting food. As I've watched the episodes, what I've observed is that very quickly the motivation to win cash becomes less important than tackling the challenge and creating the best dishes. A lot of pride is a key ingredient for the winners. Students who aren't asked to practice collaboration, communication, and problem solving skills will be challenged to use them when work and life present unexpected or complicated sabotages. Students need to have the resources, digital tools, and rich learning environments from the outset in order to build a platform they can operate from for strategic, nimble, creative, and productive solutions to life's challenges. Students need to be given opportunities where pride in their own accomplishment becomes the greatest motivator to engage and learn. Since my first year of teaching (1994), I have always turned to the Big6 information problem solving process as my essential skill set--Task Definition, Information Seeking Strategies, Location and Access, Use of Information, Synthesis, and Evaluation. While the field of "inquiry" or "research" processes include more complicated approaches, the Big6 stages are focused on what students can do, empowering them to become responsible for working through any problem--academic, practical, or culinary! The Big6 has become my habit for approaching daily tasks and personal decisions. In 2016, it is all the more important to be an information problem solving expert! Information overload, fake news, technical information, complex problems all make it critical that students have a clear understanding of how to work through issues and tasks. Let's all get in the kitchen with the best tools and materials at our disposal! Last time we checked, this is still the information age and students are facing even more challenging information problems than ever. Information technology continues to innovate at breath-taking speed, and teachers are searching for practical ways to integrate those technologies into meaningful learning experiences. The key, as always, is to focus on the students and developing their information and technology skills so they can succeed in school and in life. It provides a simple but powerful approach to help students learn essential information and technology skills in the context of local school or district curriculum priorities. In this content-packed webinar, well-known educator and Big6 co-creator Mike Eisenberg emphasizes practical strategies for defining and delivering a relevant and meaningful information and technology skills instructional program. This is a recording of the interactive event and is beneficial for prek-12 teacher-librarians, administrators, classroom teachers, parents, and school board members. is an information, communications, and technology (ICT) literacy program that is practical, easy to implement, flexible, and essential. Mike Eisenberg, Janet Murray, and Colet Bartow present this n where she has been a faculty member since 2007. She completed her Ph D in the Department of Knowledge and Information Science at the Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran in 2016. She did her Ph D research on Information Literacy instruction using the Big6 model. Her research interests lie in the area of Information Literacy, information behavior, and Scientometrics. She recently joined the University of Southern Queensland as a visiting academic and adjunct research fellow. She is collaborating in a research project on science education there with a focus on Super 3 model. You can contact her through these email addresses: baji-f(at)ajums(dot)ac(dot)ir fatemeh(dot)baji(at)usq(dot)edu(dot)au Jamie Mc Kenzie has been exploring questions, questioning and discovery learning for decades now. His work centers on how teachers and schools might nurture those habits of mind most likely to help young ones find and build their own meanings rather than rely upon the thinking of others. Jamie is convinced that effective inquiry is as much a matter of spirit and style as it is a matter of skill. In this book he outlines the basic elements — what he calls "pillars" — that turn a humdrum reporting experience into something important and delightful. This new book will start shipping in December of 2015. You can save 25% off the list price of by pre-ordering your copies now. The special price is only for online orders, purchase orders and checks placed prior to December 1. Great piece in Library Journal by Michael Stephens about the latest findings from Alison Head and Project Information Literacy: Here's a sample of the findings (from recent college grads in the workforce) and insights: "The large majority said it was hard to find the time for continued learning (88%) and staying on top of everything they thought they needed to know (70%). At the same time, half (50%) of the sample was frustrated by no longer having access to academic library databases…and to college professors and their lectures. The biggest red flag: only 27 percent of the graduates reported they had left college with the ability to formulate questions of their own. I frequently hear complaints about "today's youth" - short attention spans, Google- and Wikipedia- dependent, screen-addicted, etc. Further, Alison Head, director of PIL’s two-year study, stated that “more graduates who had attended a teaching college or university rather than a research university reported that questioning was a critical thinking skill they thought they had acquired in college and applied now in their lives.” What’s going on in some of these classrooms? "Why they don't even know basic history - like who fought with us in the Revolutionary War." Well, let's consider just one development - the exponential growth of data/information. We all talk about this - - but really reflect on it for a minute. If we take a conservative estimate - that data/information double every 5 years - that means that compared to when their parents were in school (just 20 years prior), information has doubled four times! That's 16 times more information than their parents had to cope with! "The problem is humans can't keep up with all the technology they have created," said Avivah Litan, an analyst at Gartner. "It's becoming unmanageable by the human brain. Our best hope may be that computers eventually will become smart enough to maintain themselves."Why do kids use Google, social media, smart devices? Because it helps them to better cope with the continual tsumani of information. In fact, I maintain that today's youth are the most information-savvy students ever. Yes - thety look for instant results - because they don't have the luxury of time to do it any other way. Research does indicate ( that while students are highly competent in searching, using, processing, and presenting information. But, they have trouble with more complex, ill-defined problems. As educators and parents - that's what we can help with - providing learning opportunities for kids to dive deep into content, to be able to size up a problem, task or issue and reflect and ponder. So, let's recognize the difficulties and challenges we all face in the information society. Let's applaud our youth for gaining understandings and skills to cope - even as we encourage them to add depth and critical thinking. I almost always have a problem with articles telling students what to do in order to succeed in the world - especailly those who suggest the a college education is NOT necessary. Yes, as an educator I'm biased: learning trumps all. Cathy is an author, professor at Duke University, and co-founder of HASTAC (Humanities, Arts, Science, and Technology Alliance and Collaboratory). She discusses why distraction and disruption help to re-envision the K-20 classroom and learning and how "collaborative thinking" drives individuals' motivation and creativity in both education and the workplace. in the Journal of Web Librarianship, 2009, this article describes an approach to teaching information literacy in an academic course. The article includes "an overview of the course framework, a review of course, contents, and an analysis of student responses provided through, pre- and post-course surveys. The premise of the course design was that students bring a set of technical and information skills to class that address specific but not generalized information literacy goals." The approach is unique, in-depth, and well-beyond traditional information literacy approaches. Anyone interested in information literacy - for ANY age group - should take a look. [thanks to Colet Bartow for sharing the link] Research shows that while good inquiry learning starts with asking good questions, most students find this very difficult to do. Research also shows that students are weakest in their Big6 Stage #1 (Task Definition) skills. In this fast-paced, recorded webinar, Mike Eisenberg and Bob Berkowitz will focus on strategies for improving students' question-formulation and other task definition skills for effective inquiry learning as well as success in any kind of learning approach or assignment. We are receiving requests for more information about the Big6 by the Month program - a systematic approach to ensuring that every student in a school learns essential information and technology literacy skills. Here's the best way to learn about Big6 by the Month - a free, recorded OVERVIEW webinar - from August 2013. Head, Project Information Literacy Research Report, December 4, 2013. One of the major findings is that a decline in school library programs (number of professionals, collections, etc.) seems to coincide with fewer high school students learning research skills that transfer to college. From the author: "In this study, we investigate the challenges today's freshmen face, and the information-seeking strategies they develop, use, and adapt as they make the transition from high school to college and begin to complete college research assignments. Included are data from a comparative analysis of library resources in 30 US high schools and 6 colleges and universities; interviews with 35 first-term freshmen from 6 colleges and universities, and an online survey with 1,941 US high school and college student respondents." Also released with this report are two related items about freshmen: "Major Findings: PIL's Freshmen Study" () (December 2013) How do today's freshmen make the critical transition from high school to college? What challenges do they face with finding and using information on their new campus? (No permission required for use of PIL videos.) David Conley: "Deconstructing College Readiness" (December 5, 2013) David Conley is a policy analyst and professor of educational policy and leadership at the University of Oregon. This PIL research preview highlights key findings from the 2013 PIL Freshmen Study, based on interviews with 35 freshmen from six U. We interviewed David in October 2013, asking him what it means to be college ready today. We also discussed how he thinks students can acquire the research skills they will need to succeed in college and in their careers. Thank you Alison Head for another terrific research study and report. Using the Big6/Super3: More on Putting the Common Core to Work Bob Berkowitz and I presented a one-hour webinar for teacher-librarians about the Super3, Big6, and the Common Core on Tuesday, Nov 12, 2013. It was a follow-up on an earlier webinar, but we reviewed the basics as well as answered over a dozen questions. Here's a link to the free webinar: Conference/Recording Default.aspx? c_psrid=EA58D889804C Please let us know what you think! "Learners, today, must be comfortable in their ability to solve unanticipated challenges. They must have confidence in the very act of not knowing. They must be disposed to face challenges beyond their current knowledge and skills. This confidence at these critical moments will come from: Greetings LM_Netters! It's been a while since I've posted, but I do continue to lurk. But - I HAD to post about this development and opportunity. The school library field continues to experience a slow and painful decline in many states and communities. Bob and I have been talking offline about the Common Core, the information literacy/Big6 connections, and the impact on education K-12. I won't go into the reasons, rather let's focus on some solutions. pagewanted=all Alison Head, Affiliate Associate Professor at the UW i School and PI of Project Information Literacy, wrote an excellent Op-ed in the Seattle Times today - "Old-school job skills you won't find on Google" Young graduates might well be digital savvy, but employers are finding they lack the old-school research skills. We thought we'd share our interactions more broadly by posting here on the Big6 website: My name is Marie Willingham and I am currently enrolled at Sam Houston State University in their Library Science Master's program. I am a third grade teacher to 43 amazing creatures of the future. I have simple question for you that might have a more complex answer. From your research with the Information Literacy Project and Big 6, how should a teacher begin teaching information literacy and what are the essentials that a modern day, 21st century student should know? Marie – Thanks so much for emailing and also for giving permission to post your question. First, in terms of how to begin – “just do it.” That is, starting right away, we recommend using the Big6 (or Super3 for the very young) terminology when you are talking to students, teaching, or mentoring one-on-one. Excellent report from Project Information Literacy - by Alison Head - about the transition from college to work. Based on interviews with 23 employers and 33 recent grads. Abstract below - key findings here: Graduates said they found it difficult to solve information problems in the workplace, where unlike college, a sense of urgency pervaded and where personal contacts often reaped more useful results than online searches. Graduates said they leveraged essential information competencies from college for extracting content and also developed adaptive information-seeking strategies for reaching out to trusted colleagues in order to compensate for what they lacked. Employers said they recruited graduates, in part, for their online searching skills but still expected and needed more traditional research competencies, such as thumbing through bound reports, picking up the telephone, and interpreting research results with team members. They found that their college hires rarely demonstrated these competencies. Findings suggest there is a distinct difference between today’s graduates who demonstrated how quickly they found answers online and seasoned employers who needed college hires to use a combination of online and traditional methods to conduct comprehensive research. I'm learning about Keene and Zimmerman's "Mosaic of Thought" reading comprehension approach. It looks excellent and very compatible with the Big6. (I also posted this on the Big6 Facebook page - Mosaic of Thought is clearly compatible to Big6, directly connected to Big6 #4 - Use of Information: 4.1 Engage, 4.2 Extract. It also links Use of Informaiton to Task Definition. I think the Big6 can help students to use the Mosaic of Thought comprehension strategies and tactics in a problem-solving context. Many teachers use Mosaic of Thought in a mini-lessons approach - 15 min - mini-lesson modeling a strategy 15 min - meet with small groups for extra guidance and practice. 15 min - one-on-one work with students 15 min - full class summary and discussion. I think it would be useful to frame the mini-lesson and specific comprehension strategy in a Big6 context. That is, if students learn the Big6 process, they can relate the comprehension strategy to Big6 #4.1 or 4.2 (or even Task Definition 1.1, if relevant). They can also assess their degree of expertise in comprehension and the specific strategy under Big6 # 6.2 - Evaluation: Judge the Process. Again - please share your experiences with Mosaic of Thought or other relevant instructional models. Information Alchemy: Transforming Data and Information into Knowledge and Wisdom March 30, 2012 Mike Eisenberg Dean Emeritus and Professor The Information School of the University of Washington One of the key conceptual models of the information field is the "information spectrum," the hierarchy of data - information - knowledge - wisdom. I first learned this model from Bob Taylor, former dean of the Syracuse University School of Information Studies, and it is explained in his book, , Ablex, 1986, as the "Value-Added Spectrum," (p. I teach this model to almost all of my classes, especially to my undergraduate students as part of developing an "information perspective" -- looking at the world through information-colored glasses. This is the way I explain the information spectrum (sometimes referred to as the DIKW hierarchy): We recently uncovered this short, 1 minute video of a "young" Bob Berkowitz explaining the Big6 to Danny Callison from Indiana University. This clip has been used in courses at IU and IUPUI for years! Musings from Mike Eisenberg - I'm preparing a number of presentations for different audiences about information and technology literacy and information problem-solving. In order to "set the scene" I like to talk about what it's like to live in our information society - in a world where there is an abundance of information, not scarcity. Even 30-40 years ago, it was a challenge to find and gather relevant and credible information. We aren't that far removed from the times when you had to make an appointment with a professional librarian if you wanted to conduct an online search. Access was so limited and costly, that the librarian would conduct a pre-search interview and then do the search for you - sometimes not even with you present! Again, those were the days when the challenge was finding, search, and gathering. Crediting and citing - let's make it positive, easy, and fun, not punative, hard and a chore. I've been thinking a lot about developing citing/creditng skills among elementary students. This can and should be fun - creating a "culture of crediting" in a school with classroom teachers, teacher-librarians, technology teachers, administrators and even parents modeling for students by continually crediting and citing sources - in coversation, teaching, on paper, and electronically. My firm, InnoCentive, has used it to help more than 100 corporations. would be measured by market impact How many families are paying for the solution. A solution to this problem would not only provide convenient and affordable.
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Soft Ss to Pay the Bills - United States Department of Labor Regardless of what they do for a living or where they live, most people spend most of their waking hours, at work or at home, solving problems. Most problems we face are small, some are large and complex, but they all need to be solved in a satisfactory way. Before we look at the area of problem analysis and solution, though, let's take a few moments to think about just what we mean by a problem. A problem can be a real break, the stroke of luck, opportunity knocking, a chance to get out of the rut of the everyday and make yourself or some situation better. One of the creative thinker's fundamental insights is that most questions have more than one right answer and most problems have more than one solution. Note that problems need not arrive as a result of external factors or bad events. In keeping with this insight, we will offer more than one definition of a problem, in hopes of filling out its meaning as fully as possible. Any new awareness you have that allows you to see possibilities for improvement brings a "problem" for you to solve. Different definitions yield different attitudes and approaches and prevent us from becoming fixed in the rut of "Oh No! This is why the most creative people are "problem seekers" rather than "problem avoiders." Developing a positive attitude toward problems can transform you into a happier, saner, more confident person who feels (and is) much more in control of life. Train yourself to respond to problems with enthusiasm and eagerness, rising to the opportunity to show your stuff, and you will be amazed at the result. A problem is the difference between your current state and your goal state. A problem can result from new knowledge or thinking. When you know where you are and where you want to be, you have a problem to solve in getting to your destination. The solution can and should be fun and exciting as you think over the various possible solution paths you might choose. When you can identify the difference between what you have and what you want, you have defined your problem and can aim toward your goal. A problem results from the recognition of a present imperfect and the belief in the possibility of a better future. Isn't it interesting here that hope produces problems? The belief that your hopes can be achieved will give you the will to aim toward the better future. Your hopes challenge you, and challenge is another definition of a problem. As you read these definitions, I hope you noticed that they all include the ideas of goals and ideal states. Problem solving centers on thinking about goals and ideals. When a goal is met, the problem should be concluded if the goal was an appropriate one for solving the problem. Another way of thinking about this would be to say that the goal or ideal state defines how much of a problem exists or even whether or not there is a problem. For example, let's say you have just brought a pizza home from the pizza parlor and it is beginning to cool. If your ideal state is to eat very hot pizza, then you have a problem, whether you define it as how to keep the pizza from cooling, how to heat it back up, how to eat it quickly, or whatever. On the other hand, if you like moderately warm pizza, then you do not have a problem. Similarly, if your friend comes over an hour later and you offer him a piece of leftover pizza, only to discover that your oven is on the blink, you have a problem: how to heat the pizza up again. But if the friend says, "I really like cold pizza better than hot," you no do not have a problem. This example demonstrates that one's goal must be considered in conjunction with one's current state in order to determine whether a problem exists and to what extent it exists. People who don't take time to think about their goals before attacking a problem thus don't fully understand the problem. You've probably heard that cracked proverb, "If you don't know where you're going, you'll probably end up somewhere else." Another important truth to derive from this understanding about goals is that as your goals change, so will the nature of the problems you face. Life operates in real time rather than in timeless theory, so that as we move through our existence, our goals are in a constant state of flux. Some goals change radically, or even reverse, while others undergo minor adjustments and refinements. This should include a written description of the problem in the clearest way it can be put. Be sure that your problems and solutions stay current with your goals. The statement might begin with the problem as given, put in quotation marks to remind you that that's the way it was received. In our ordinary discourse, we often think of "solving a problem" in the sense of making it go away, so that the problem no longer exists. But the problem should always be stated in your own words, too. ) Use synonyms; move from genus to species or species to genus. This indeed is one kind of solution, but it is not the only kind. Problem exploration The problem is investigated, broken into subproblems, terms are defined. Make the problem your own, and do not let it become attached to the verbal clothing in which it was originally delivered to you. Continue to define in more and more general or specific ways. Some problems cannot be eliminated entirely: we are never likely to eliminate trash, or the wear on automobile tires, or the occurrence of illness. A determination is made about the nature of the problem (sociological, personal, technological, historical). A useful aspect of any definition or problem statement is to state what the thing is not. This kind of definition allows the breaking of the problem into attributes, components, and general features. We can, however, create solutions or treatments that will make each of these problems less harmful. Some research is made into whether or not it has been met in the past, and if so, how. By clearly identifying what is not the problem, you'll clarify what it is. Restate the problem in entirely different words, or in a completely different way. The result is to shake loose some possible solutions. The simulator doesn't move laterally so it takes up little space. For our purposes, then, we will define a solution as the management of a problem in a way that successfully meets the goals established for treating it. Do this several different times (three to eight is recommended). The idea here is to find out whether the given wording of the problem is really only a specific statement of a more general problem. For example: Problem: Rides cost a lot to build and when people get tired of them they cost a lot to replace. Goal: Build a ride in a small space that's cheap and easy to replace. It's an experience, physical, psychological, of sight, sound, motion, events. And when ride gets tiring, a new film and a new program of different bumps yields a new ride. Sometimes the goal will be to eliminate the problem entirely; sometimes the goal will be only to treat the effects of the problem. Again, the purpose of this process is to break the problem away from confusing or restricting verbal maps of it, so that the "problem in itself" can be isolated. Often general statements allow the problem to be seen in entirely different terms and therefore suggest solutions that otherwise wouldn't be thought of. A feeling or process of going from beginning to end and seeing or experiencing things along the way, usually exciting and different. Clarify anything about the problem that is ambiguous or uncertain. The possibilities inherent in the problem, together with the ambitiousness, resources, and values of the problem solver, will help shape the goals. For example, "Carry the filing cabinet upstairs to my office." How about "Take the file to my office upstairs," or "Move the cabinet into my office." This latter description may enable you to cease focusing on the stairs and carrying and to remember that there is an elevator nearby. Compare the difference in orientation: Design a better mattress, or Design a better bed, or Design a better way to sleep. Okay, how can we build a ride in a small space that will give this long experience of motion and movement, and that's cheap and easy to replace? Often, problems as given are unclear in their original form. There are two basic approaches to solving problems, one where the cause or source of the problem is attacked and the other where the effects or symptoms of the problem are attacked. The mind moves from considerations of springs and padding to the possibilities of a water bed, air flotation, maybe even an armchair design bed. "Improve the magazine," is an unclear assignment because it doesn't specify what the area of improvement should be. For ease of remembering, we can call these the stop it and the mop it approaches, respectively. As we detail these approaches and their forms, let's use the problem of a leaking water tank to illustrate each one. Does this mean choose better articles, change the typefaces and layout, get classier advertisers, get a bigger circulation, or what? A stop-it approach is designed to cure a problem, so that, insofar as possible, the problem no longer exists. "Cure condition X" might be problematic until we discover for certain whether condition X is an infectious kind of disease, a hereditary condition, a chemical poison, or what. Articulate the assumptions being made about the problem and describe the way a solution would have to work. First, there is the possibility that you will find a solution in the head of another person. Its three forms are prevention, elimination, and reduction. By preventing a problem from occurring (or recurring) we have perhaps the ideal solution. Assumptions can be tricky because they tend to be automatic and submerged--not consciously made. Discussion enables you to get information, suggestions, and ideas. In our water heater example, we would build a very high quality water heater, perhaps with a copper tank, so that it would never leak. This articulation step in the problem solving procedure involves the conscious listing of all assumptions that can be identified. Important: even if the ideas have nothing to do with the problem, or if they are in themselves unworkable, they can still be valuable stimuli because they will show a new approach to the problem or they will suggest something practical to you. The prevention approach is often a difficult one to apply because it requires predictive foresight ("this might be a problem someday if we don't act now") and it is often costly. The listing is without prejudice or judgment or hostility. It is especially important when listing assumptions to list the extremely obvious ones, because often it is those that later turn out to be alterable. So even though your friend can never understand your problem technically, emotionally, intellectually, artistically, or whatever, you can still gain valuable insight by discussing it and by hearing a response. And, of course, most problems crash into us unexpectedly or for some other reason cannot be prevented. Examine these assumptions to discover if they are necessary, not necessary, or uncertain as to their necessity. In the problem, Develop a better way to destroy kidney stones, one obvious and necessary assumption is that the patient should be alive after the procedure. Secondly, discussing your problem with someone allows you to see what you really think. For example, if you can prevent a cold, or an automobile accident, you will not have to deal any further with a problem or its effects. But often assumptions turn out to be made for no good reason--that is they are not necessary assumptions. Research into past approaches to the problem or to similar problems will help you get new ideas as well as gain understanding of the nature and environment of the problem itself. Philosophers and writing theorists have long noted that people think and work out ideas as they talk. Similarly, by preventing misunderstandings, the need for lots of damage control and emotional healing can be avoided. Eliminating a problem once and for all is also an excellent way of attacking a problem. These can be challenged and new routes to success can then be discovered. If your problem is to improve self-stick brackets, you might do some research into how glues work. You don't really know what you think until you consciously verbalize it. In our leaking water heater example, an elimination solution would be to plug or seal or otherwise repair the leak, the cause of the problem (all that water on the floor). Francis Bacon noted that one value of friendship was to have someone to talk to so that you can see how your ideas look when they are turned into words. One, by explaining why the problem is problematic, you discover more about its nature and whether it really is a problem. Elimination solutions should be considered in nearly every problem situation. Some people have reported remarkable insights just by talking to their pets, where no intellectual feedback from the "listener" was possible. James Adams remarks that there have been a lot of solutions to problems that didn't exist. For example, a neighbor where I used to live had chronic trouble getting TV reception to suit him. So when you discuss your problem or idea, listen to yourself as well as to the other person. So this explanation phase allows you to discover just whether a problem is real. Every weekend he was on his roof installing another antenna (he eventually had three), rotating one, putting another up on a higher mast, and so on. He might have eliminated the problem by subscribing to cable TV or moving to an area where the reception was better. Next, by explaining in detail the negatives of the problem, a set of more specific targets can be identified, thus better lending themselves to being solved. Elimination solutions can be expensive and politically unpopular, however, so that they are not always feasible. For example, first statement: Here at the amusement park, our problem is that rides are expensive and people get tired of them. Because we have to replace the rides so people will continue to come to the park. (What are the thoughts of those who cause it, those who suffer from it, those who have to fix it, those who have to pay for it, etc.? For example, an elimination solution to the AIDS problem might involve changing social behaviors (including sexual practices and drug use). Thus, the usual approach to AIDS is a mop-it one (see below). As we mentioned earlier, some problems, like trash production, cannot be eliminated entirely. The negatives are that we have to (1) keep tearing the ride down, (2) building a new ride, (3) spending a lot of money, (4) disturbing the amusement park with major construction, (5) advertising the new ride, etc. ) Remember that your view of reality, as an intelligent, concerned, conscientious, middle class person, is only one view. In such cases, a strategy of reduction can be highly effective. This statement allows the clarification of possible goals, like building a ride people won't tire of, figuring out a way to build rides quickly and cheaply, and so forth. By imaginatively taking on the viewpoints of various other people affected by a particular problem, you can sometimes discover solutions that you as yourself would never think of. Almost any problem can be made less of one by reducing its size. For example, let's say your assignment is to reduce litter on the beaches. In our water heater example, suppose we couldn't perform a repair (an elimination solution) until a day or two later. One way to proceed would be to write out the viewpoints of various people. We could reduce the problem by turning off the incoming water. How do the people doing the littering view the situation? " Or are they thinking, "I'd throw this in a can, but there isn't one nearby, so I'll toss it on the ground," or "I see that can nearby, but it smells so I don't want to go near it"? Again, suppose your job is to improve the juvenile justice system. Without line pressure on the tank, the leak would slow down; that would be better that a full force leak. What about the person who has to pick up the trash? Imagine that you are, in turn, the juvenile offender, the parents, the victim, the sheriff or arresting officer, the head of Juvenile Hall, the judge, a man on the street, and so forth. Addressing his concerns as well as our own will be the most likely way to improve the situation, rather than, say, passing new laws based only upon our own viewpoint. For example, current approaches to the flow of illegal drugs into the country include reduction strategies. By constructing these different viewpoints, you will be able to generate solutions that meet some of the cynical, prejudiced, or even thoughtful attitudes of the various parties. We, as users of medical services, often complain about the poor service, lack of knowledge, and high costs. The importance of being able to see different sides or angles has been reinforced in folk wisdom worldwide. By asking "why" of every statement of the problem, possible solution, or identified goal, clearer definitions are made. So they can take them on trips with them and use them, say in hotels. The flow of drugs cannot be eliminated as long as demand continues, so interdiction focuses on "as much as possible." A mop-it approach focuses on the effects of a problem. The French have a saying, for example, "To know all is to forgive all." The American Indians have the saying, "Don't criticize your neighbor until you have walked a mile in his moccasins." The better you become at understanding where others "are coming from," the better you'll become at choosing solutions that will be acceptable and effective for all involved. Asking why can serve a purpose similar to that of broadening the definition of the problem, and can lead to new ways of looking at the problem and at possible solutions. Why do we want them to use them on trips and in hotels? Or, maybe we should redefine the problem into, We need a better way to keep mice from bothering us. Knowing where it came from can help focus your efforts toward a solution to try or away from a solution not to try. Are there associative factors that helped cause or perpetuate the problem? As you can guess, the name comes from our leaking water heater example. Example problem: Let's make computers smaller and lightweight and portable. So they can make efficient use of their extra time when traveling. This may suggest a different solution from that of killing them, like driving them away, keeping them out of the house in the first place, etc. If a particular solution has been tried already and met with a sensational disaster, you might not want to try it first again. Have there been similar problems and solutions that may be useful in solving this one? Instead of treating the leak itself, we mop up the water on the floor--the effects of the problem. Here the damage caused by the problem is repaired or treated. (Possibility: put computers in hotel rooms for guests to use.) Example problem: We need a better way to kill mice. Because we are overrun by mice and they are bothering us. Is the problem really a symptom or result of another problem? For example, the "problem" of low quality cars may really be only a symptom, with the real problem behind it quite different, like poor management, low quality parts and materials, old machinery, careless labor, or whatever. The problem solvers who caught Typhoid Mary eventually noticed that various families' problems with typhoid began just after Mary began to work for them. An understanding of contributing or perpetuating factors will help you to take steps to prevent a problem from coming right back once you solve it. What limitations are imposed, what is required, what must be observed in solving the problem? Constraints are givens that must be followed--a budget you cannot exceed, legal or contractual requirements that must be met and so on. We mop up the water, fix the damaged floor, hang the rugs out to dry. A search for the causes of a problem often reveals one or more underlying problems which need to be solved first or which, when solved, will solve the originally identified problem. Similarly, studying how similar or analogous problems have been solved may lead you to a shortcut solution to this one. For example, if your problem is to develop a new American sports car, one constraint is that it must meet federal air pollution standards. Note two things: (1) by itself a treat-it solution is not going to be nearly as effective as some form of stop-it solution and (2) treat-it solutions are often needed in addition to an elimination or reduction form of solution. If your problem is to make an educational tour more affordable for students, one probable constraint is that the tour company can't go broke in the process. We too often set our goals as the solving of the immediate problem or the minimum solution rather than considering how we would like reality to be ideally. For example, suppose you are faced with the task of making a more durable conveyor belt. For example, some of our drug and alcohol treatment programs are aimed at symptomatic relief of the effects of these problems rather than at eliminating the problems to begin with. In this form of mop-it approach, the effects of the problem are put up with. Constraints are simply requirements to keep in mind, part of the problem's basic dimensions. For example, if Jane always criticizes everything I say, I could set as my goal that she would stop criticizing me. That not only would she stop criticizing me, but she would begin to support and encourage me, and even become a partner in my efforts. What are the goals to be achieved that would make this problem be declared solved? You might think on your own about using stronger materials, like Kevlar or steel reinforcing, but a little research would reveal how many other people have solved the same problem, and you might happen upon the idea of the Mobius strip. In our leaky water heater example, we might install a drain in the floor, or waterproof the floor. Writing them down helps to keep them in the foreground as you work toward solutions. Instead of the goal of reducing pollution on the beach, or even stopping it, why not a goal of an improved ecology, where the beach will be cleaner than ever before? The listing of definite and precise goals is useful in problem solving because the attempts at solution can then be measured against the goals to see how much progress is being made. Goal: Reduce unemployment for both males and females over eighteen to five percent or less within the next year. Begin with a period of information gathering and mental stimulation. Here, you simply rotate one end of the belt half a turn before connecting the two ends of the belt together. The effects are taken for granted and measures are taken to endure them. Sometimes the problem will simply be redefined as not a problem. And, of course, occasionally the identified constraints turn out, upon listing and examination, not to be necessary after all. Example problem: Unemployment is too high in inner city America. Note that setting up goals (1) helps to clarify the direction to take in solving the problem and (2) gives you something definite to aim at. That is, what will occur as a result of the solution? This produces a belt with only one side, with twice the life of an ordinarily made belt. For example, graffiti and vandalism are now taken for granted in many large cities, so tolerance measures have been implemented, such as installing lights that are harder to break or cheaper to replace, not planting trees that would be destroyed, and so on. It's hard to think of a legitimate redirection for our leaking water heater problem, but suppose that the leak is small and the floor is not being damaged. Describe the world as it will be after the solution is implemented. It's a brilliant idea that you might never come across unless you did a little research. Use idea generation techniques (brainstorming, forced relationships, random stimulation, and so on). We might say, "Well, we need the humidity; the leak is actually a good thing." Remember that a problem is a problem only when someone defines it as such. In our unemployment example above, we could say the solution will involve setting up a permanent job finding service that will continue to operate after the goal is met, to insure that unemployment (the problem) doesn't return later on. Generate a large number of ideas of all kinds so that you'll have a good selection to choose from, adapt, or stimulate other ideas. Some police departments have been known to buy bus or airline tickets for chronic offenders (prostitutes, usually) to send them to another state far across the country, thus "solving" their own problem. The solution might also include educational services to train workers or to train people in job finding strategies (like looking in the paper, going to job sites, and so forth). Don't worry about whether the ideas are practical or wild at this point. Sometimes, as when you get a cold, a mop-it solution is all that's available: there is no elimination solution that works yet. Note that the description of the solution here can be pretty vague and dreamy if necessary, because sometimes you will have only an uncertain notion of what that solution will ultimately be. If your problem is an unhappy marriage or love relationship, you could say that your goal is "a happy relationship," but more progress toward the goal will be probable if you can be more specific, such as, "stop yelling at each other," "become more affectionate," "do more things together," and so forth. As we will continue to see throughout the class, some wild ideas turn out to be quite practical. In general, however, be careful to investigate the possibility of implementing a stop-it solution before you focus on mop-it ones. Just one example: Problem: How to inhibit corrosion and increase electrical contact on electronic plugs. There is a temptation to focus on symptomatic treatments for our problems when we should be looking for treatments of the underlying causes. Solution: plate them with gold--an excellent corrosion inhibitor and conductor. This "wild" solution became practical because gold can be plated on very thin, reducing the cost to something very reasonable. Allow time to incubate during various phases of idea generation. Here are some guidelines that will help you analyze, define, and solve problems in an orderly way. The major cycle of creativity that has long been identified is preparation (initial thought, research, study, work), incubation (time to let the unconscious work), insight (the flash of recognition of a solution path--the eureka experience), implementation (working out the solution), and evaluation. Use these guidelines to help create a problem-solving habit of mind and to give some structure to your problem solving activity. Small problems will require only a short period of incubation. Some people require longer periods than other people. Remember, though, that problem solving does not proceed by recipe, nor is it necessarily linear, as these guidelines might imply. The main thing is to remember the cycle of work, incubate, work, incubate. Evaluate the collection of ideas and possible solutions and approaches. Problem solving is a recursive process; you must continually go back and forth between steps and do some parts again. The eureka flashes do not come without previous periods of preparation and hard thinking. What possible solutions, either individually or in conjunction with each other, will solve this problem? Similarly, you might not always proceed in exactly this order. In the mythology of genius we often see the wizard sitting around when the flash suddenly comes to him. An important thing to remember here is not to get fixated on the single solution idea. Thus, these guidelines are not meant to be rigid and absolute. And that's often what happens--the insight comes during a period of relaxation. You may want to adopt two or three separate solution paths at the same time--kind of like the triple antibiotic ointment approach. In the evaluation state above, you should establish some rank ordering. Note that (as we will find later on in decision analysis), the very top ranked solution is not always the one to get chosen for implementation. Think of them rather as a checklist designed to assure that you include all the important features of problem analysis in your thinking. But what's left out is that same genius' long months of very hard work. When you have worked a long time and are up against a wall, leave the problem and go out and do something relaxing. You might also want to set up "Plan B," a possible solution approach that can be implemented if your main plan does not work. Subjective, emotional factors, sudden changes, peculiar circumstances, the desire for beneficial side effects not directly related to the solution, intuitive feeling, and so forth, often shift the choice to something ranked below number one or two. The person who looks best on paper may not "feel" right, and you may have a preference for someone further down the so-called objective list. Allow others to see and criticize your selected solution and to make suggestions for improvements or even alternatives. Samuel Johnson noted that if all possible objections to a proposal must first be overcome, nothing would ever be attempted. (After the outline of the guidelines you'll find a commentary and elaboration on them.) I. So in your evaluation, don't focus on choosing just one solution and tossing the others away. The best way to turn your idea light bulb into a chandelier or floodlight is to let other people comment on it. Once you choose a solution path, get to work on it. And remember to give your solution sufficient time to work. When you evaluate, you want to find the solution that will be the most effective (work best), efficient (cost the least, whether in terms of money, time, emotions, or whatever), and have the fewest drawbacks or side effects. This takes a certain amount of ego strength, since only intermediate friends will say how good the idea is. "Do it, fix it, try it." "Ready, fire, aim." The real test of an idea is to try it out. Too hasty an abandonment of a solution or solution path is as common a problem as too obsessive a commitment to a particular solution path. Strangers and close friends will quickly point out absurdities and weaknesses. A solution may take weeks or months (or years) to work, so use judgment in determining how long to wait before abandoning the choice. Make adjustments or changes as needed during implementation. Practically every solution needs some modification in the process of being put into effect. One of the most frequent failures of problem solving is the lack of evaluation of the implemented solution. But that's good, because you'll have a chance to improve your solution idea before attempting to implement it. Don't be swayed too easily by criticism to change an idea that you are confident is really good; after all, the typical person is not a creative visionary and will be controlled by the prejudices of ordinariness. On the other hand, don't be so in love with your idea that you cannot see the legitimacy of criticisms that point our genuine weaknesses. Blueprints are changed, scripts are rewritten, your parenting methodology is adjusted. Too often in the past, once a solution has been chosen and implemented, people have wandered off, assuming that the problem was solved and everything was fine. And always be willing to incorporate new ideas and improvements from fresh minds looking at the problem and solution from a different perspective. Don't expect that your solution will be exactly as you originally proposed. Investigate to determine whether the solution(s) worked, and to what extent. But the solution may not have worked or not worked completely, or it may have caused other problems in the process. Remember that the goal is to solve the problem, not mindlessly to implement the solution exactly as proposed. Staying around long enough to evaluate the solution's effectiveness, then, is an important part of problem solving. Remember that many solutions are better described as partially successful or partially unsuccessful, rather than as an either/or in a success/failure division. If you propose a solution that reduces drug addiction by even ten percent, your solution is a good one, even though it didn't work for the other ninety percent of cases. In many cases, an incomplete remedy is better than none at all. Ss to Pay the Bills Mastering Soft Ss for Workplace Success," is a curriculum. Download Soft S #5 Problem Solving & Critical Thinking PDF.
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