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Video - Tranquil Transitions LLC For general information about our webcasts or to be part of our studio audience in Washington D. This webcast is made possible by AFT Teachers, a division of the American Federation of Teachers, as part of a Colorín Colorado partnership between AFT and Reading Rockets. This 45-minute webcast is a thorough introduction to assessment for teachers of English language learners. Lorraine Valdez Pierce will discuss performance-based standardized assessments; assessment as a tool for informing instruction; use of assessment to reinforce reading comprehension; and student self-assessment and self-monitoring. Lorraine Valdez Pierce will also provide practical advice on how ESL and classroom teachers can collaborate when assessing English language learners and making decisions based on those assessments. Tips on record keeping and rubrics are also included. Lorraine Valdez Pierce is an Associate Professor in the Graduate School of Education at George Mason University. She focuses on designing curriculum and assessment procedures for English language learners at the Center for Language & Culture. She has also published articles in TESOL Journal, TESOL Matters, and Educational Assessment. She is the Vice President of the Center for Community Educational Excellence at the National Council of La Raza. The articles and books below were chosen by Reading Rockets to help you learn more about this issue. The links to are provided for your convenience, and a portion of your purchase helps support Reading Rockets. Discover how to bridge the gap between equitably assessing linguistic and academic performance. This well-documented text examines the unique needs of English language learners and describes strategies for implementing instructional assessment of language and content. More An authoritative reference for teachers facing an increasingly diverse school population that provides pre-service and in-service teachers, curriculum specialists, teacher mentors, and administrators with the necessary tools to meet the educational needs of English language learners in an inclusive classroom. Welcome to this year’s first Colorín Colorado webcast. She’s coordinator of the ESL Teacher Licensure Program at the Graduate School of Education at George Mason University in Fairfax, Virginia. Pierce, before we talk about assessment, tell us a little bit about English language learners, some of the characteristics that make teaching — make teaching them challenging. Lorraine Valdez Pierce: Well, there are three big areas that make teaching English language learners challenging. Today, we’re going to talk about assessment for English language learners. The three areas are language, culture, and previous educational experience. So when it comes — when we’re talking about assessment, language is right up there as one of the big three with regard to the difference in language between the language that they speak and the language that they’re being assessed or tested in. Then there’s culture, which will maybe lead to some differences in classroom behavior from what native speakers would be producing or preparing. When parents come from different cultures they may be less eager to run and participate in the American public school system. And then finally, the previous educational experience that these children bring may include literacy, or not literacy. Pierce: Well, children who speak English as a second language, or bilingual children, come from, you know, over 100, 200 different language backgrounds. Pierce: Well, research tells us now, we have pretty clear evidence that says a child who brings native language literacy to the classroom has a tremendous advantage over the child who does not bring any kind of significant amount of native language literacy. At the classroom level, it’ll most likely be informal. Pierce: Well, the assessment itself has become a key issue when we look at No Child Left Behind, and when we look at Adequate Yearly Progress, which is another term we toss around a lot. And this is a very important variable in assessing students. Could you go back and define — give us a little more information on each one. And what we know is the closer the language is to English, such as a romance language, the easier it would be for that child to acquire the language. So what we want to determine then when a child comes to the classroom is whether or not they have literacy in the native language. What are we talking about when we talk about assessment? Pierce: Yeah, assessment basically is the gathering of data, information, on a student’s learning or knowledge or skills. And it must take the place of some kind of observation on the part of the teacher and then translating the observation to some kind of documentation. What can you tell us about how assessment fits into No Child Left Behind in general, and to Adequate Yearly Progress, or AYP, which we’ll try not to use, Adequate Yearly Progress we’ll say. Language, could you define how that would be different? But the more distance between their language, such as Russian, or Arabic, or Turkish, the more distance there is between the written language and the spoken language and English, the more challenge there might be in learning the English language. The cultural part comes where children are raised in a home where they are maybe given a rather passive role, and they’re taught to also go to school and just do what the teacher tells you, and not really engage or ask questions. And if they do, then we can use that as a building block to acquiring English as a second language literacy. So, it seems like assessment would be particularly important for this group. And with regard to reading, it’s what kind of information do we have on the student’s reading skills and ability? Because it seems to me that teachers are gathering information on kids all the time. Delia: In particular, how is that interaction taking place when you look at assessment, and then also when you look at the context of the characteristics of these children? Pierce: Well, I think there’s good news and there’s bad news. And so the teacher may get the impression that these children are passive, or even not interested, or not making the effort, when really it’s a cultural upbringing issue. Childrearing definitely has an impact on the child’s behavior and performance in the school. I think the good news is at last we have some requirements on the part of the federal government and the states following those requirements, for accountability, accountability for the learning of English language learners who, for the longest time, have been an invisible student population, because their test scores on standardized tests have typically been excluded, or disaggregated. And so the good news is we do have accountability requirements for monitoring the progress of these students. Delia: So the culture really reflects the styles of the different children and what their family values and what childrearing styles. The bad news is that most school systems take the approach that one size fits all. And so the same tests that are used with native speakers of English are now being used with English language learners for the most part. What did you see in that classroom that the rest of us may not have noticed? Pierce: Yeah, I saw the teacher engaging the student in a task, the task of doing something to follow specific instructions. And those are not appropriate, because of the language difference. And while the student was writing his name and performing certain literacy tasks, the teacher was keeping records. And then, in the case of states that are developing native language assessments, this is still in kind of an — kind of an emerging field. The teacher had already walked into the situation with a plan. There’s not a whole lot of research out there on native language assessments for accountability at the state level. He already had some kind of a checklist, or some kind of anecdotal record sheet. And he was keeping records on this individual child to be able to carefully diagnose his strengths and needs. So you see a lot of states kind of searching for answers, and the whole field is evolving. And then, therefore, direct instruction based on that. So it’s a very challenging aspect there, to get issues such as accountability and reliability and validity, important measurement issues addressed at these levels of assessment. Delia: Now, I imagine we might see that in any number of classrooms. Delia: You used the word "disaggregation" awhile ago, which is probably something a lot of our audience is hearing about. What specifically, what techniques was he using that were appropriate to English language learners in this situation that we saw? Pierce: Well, he was relating to prior experience and prior knowledge. What’s the key thing about disaggregation that’s important about English language learners in the context of No Child Left Behind? Pierce: In the context of No Child Left Behind, disaggregation means the ability to find out how specific populations are doing with regard to approaching learning goals and objectives. He was asking him, "Write your name." And he was using manipulatives where he had the little flashcards up; manipulatives, any kind of hands-on experience. So it’s very important not to just mix in the English language learners with native speakers, but to pull out that data and information on all English language learners in the school system to find out how this group is progressing as a group from year to year. Pierce: It’s especially important when we talk about accuracy. That is, if we’re going to make inferences from test data then we need to make sure that those inferences about where these students are, what they’ve learned, and what they haven’t learned, that these inferences are accurate. Narrator: The interview gives Arlington some important information about Marlon, like the fact that he’s been to school in the United States for a year already. Narrator: When his dad’s finished with his questions, it’s Marlon’s turn. He had the learners engage in kinesthetic activities. Delia: So then how does assessing English language learners become an important piece of what we’re doing? And the only way you’re going to get accuracy if you either use the language of instruction that these students are familiar with or use different kinds of assessments that more closely relate to instruction. Silvia Koch: Parents are just that part of the learning equation that we cannot do without. [Speaking Spanish] Silvia Koch: We look not only at the academic background but we also look at the whole child. His teachers need to know how well Marlon can understand spoken and written English. Teacher: So if you’re assessing a child you not only want to assess their knowledge of letters and sounds and so forth in English, but you want to tap into it in Spanish, too. Lee is leading his students on one of the most important journeys of their lives. Lee: If you want to be on my train, you have to tell me a word that starts with the letter "S." Narrator: Mr. There was quite an incentive to answer the question when he said, "You can get on my train." So he had kinesthetic activities, the learner felt that he was belonging if he was able to provide the correct answer. Delia: Okay, so how would a school handle a new student? Narrator: Eight-year-old Marlon Escobar Lopez has an important appointment today. [Speaking Spanish] Because whatever they know in Spanish, you can be quite certain you can use to help them acquire the skills in English. Narrator: Marlon can read a little bit in English already. Lee’s last stop today is bringing together phonemic awareness and letter sound correspondences. He had the students participate in writing down, there was a writing down task. He’s checking into his new school system in Arlington, Virginia. And his comprehension skills in both languages are strong. Pierce: Well, first you need to make an assessment, a determination of native language literacy, and prior educational experience. And he was tapping prior knowledge and making the learners feel that they could contribute something in the classroom. He’s at the Arlington Intake Center where staff will figure out exactly what he needs from his new teachers. So the Intake Center places him in a second grade class for English language learners. Narrator: His teachers at Abingdon Elementary have received all the information gathered at the Intake Center, both social and academic, so they know exactly where to start with Marlon. So what do you do if you're a school that has not had a lot of experience with this? And to the extent that that shows that the child, the learner, has some native language literacy, you will know where you can begin as far as sound/symbol recognition, phonemic awareness, especially if the language is a romance-based language similar to English. Delia: Now, this particular classroom was really diverse, it looked like. Silvia Koch: Intake Center is the place where children who speak another language or have another language background enter school. Arlington’s English language learners speak 104 languages and come from 122 different countries. But those kids are very diverse, too, both culturally and economically. Silvia Koch: Using time for instruction right away at the correct and appropriate level is important to us. If the assessment determines that the child is not literate in the native language then there will need to be some serious, perhaps one-on-one instruction that goes on with the student to acquire literacy, if not in the native language, if that’s not possible, then in a meaningful way, in a very meaningful way, in English. And clearly he wasn’t using the native language, because there were kids of so many different language backgrounds. Teacher: Children from the middle class have had certain experiences that other students may not have had. We want all our students to achieve at a high level, to be challenged, regardless of where they started. Delia: I’m guessing that some assessments are more appropriate for English language learners than others. How do you assess and diagnose in a classroom like that? Pierce: Well, what you want to have is a common set of objectives or standards for teaching. Could you tell us about what an inappropriate assessment might look like? Pierce: Well, some of the problems with inappropriate assessments, there’s at least three problems. Another one is that the test item is presented out of context. And then compare each student’s accomplishments toward the standards. And the third one is that the test item might have a cultural base. Instead of comparing the students to themselves, to each other in a class, you compare the student to his or her mastery of these objectives as specified in expectations for performance, on a scoring guide or checklist or criteria sheet. And so if we talk about heavy language load, a heavy language load is where the wording of a test item or directions to take the test presents an obstacle in and of itself to the student responding to the item and giving you the information that you’re actually looking for. A lot of cultural assumptions are made on the background knowledge of the learner. So it doesn’t matter if there’s a hundred different languages in the classroom. And so if I can’t get past the directions or the wording of the item to give you the answer, that’s going to pose a problem. The second problem is that the items tend to be decontextualized on a standardized or multiple choice test where you have these items separate from any meaningful reading passage or meaningful personal experience, and these items, in and of themselves, may out of context provide a challenge, a stop to the student who goes, "Out of context this doesn’t really make a lot of sense." That’s what I mean by meaningful. And depending on whether it’s a teacher-made test, or even a standardized test, these assumptions may be incorrect. What matters is that the teacher is consistent in keeping records on how close or how far each student is from accomplishing the learning objective. And if the student has to get past these assumptions to answer the item in reading then — and if he’s not able to do so successfully then the item itself will not serve the purpose for which it was intended. An example, I’ve seen so many reading tests, standardized reading tests with samples of cultural base, or some have called cultural bias. Lee: Most of my students, in fact, almost all of my students at the beginning of the year, they don’t know anything. Delia: Now, earlier in this explanation you talked about the necessity to assess a child’s native language and to know where the student was. One way that we’ve seen a lot of school systems do is to gather your resources. Delia: This is something that people ask about all the time. If it’s a test of reading and you have a question in there about Halloween and there’s a picture of a witch in there, and the student comes from a country where — or background — because many of these students can be native-born — a background where they’re not familiar with Halloween or witches, then your purpose of determining the reading ability has been defeated. And towards the end of the year, I have this feeling that I’ve done something good with them. When you have a classroom that is this diverse and the teacher doesn’t have the capacity to speak all the languages, and doesn’t use the native language very much in the curriculum, how do you adjust for an English as a second language approach? And you can gather resources from parents, from concerned neighbors, from business organizations in the community that can provide a native language resource. The second way is the teacher herself or himself, providing language supportive activities in the classroom, which are referred to as scaffolding. And I’d like you to talk a little bit more about the cultural background and what is an example of cultural bias in a test? Because if I’m not familiar with witches and Halloween, even if I’m able to read every word on that item, I will not be able to determine the answer. So how does all this relate to assessment of reading skills in English language learners? Pierce: Well, the way this relates is that the assessment of reading for English language learners needs to be very much tied to classroom instruction and exposure to the kinds of literacy that students are exposed to in K-3 and upper elementary grades, and beyond. First of all, they can be linked to state standards, which is the basis for most state standardized tests. Reading coaches will offer one-on-one help to the bottom fifth of students. Lee: Can you write your first name, last name for Mr. Providing language supports in the classroom through reducing the language demand using possibly simplified language to the learners, writing everything on the board, directions step-by-step, making the sound/symbol connection. That is, there has been, I think, a serious gap occurring between the standardized test that we see now more and more on the market, and the actual kinds of assessments that are taking place in the classroom that teachers are using to diagnose, very specifically, decoding skills, reading comprehension skills, reading strategies and so on, that take place in an interactive, hands-on way that provides the context that I’ve been talking about, the context for learning, which is pretty much absent on a paper/pencil, standardized test. So, first of all, teacher instruction and teacher assessment can be linked to state standards assuring that connection to the state test. Narrator: Hearing a rhyme requires phonemic awareness. So if the teacher is talking rapidly, such as I am right now, teacher wants to identify the two or three priority points that we’re gonna be learning about today, and we’re gonna put these on the board so the students can constantly refer and see what’s on the board, and remember and recognize what was said earlier. Delia: So those are the benefits of a classroom assessment in reading skills. Secondly, they need to reflect what the student's experience has been in the classroom as far as learning. Delia: Sort of a preview of what they’re going to be doing? Pierce: Right, previewing, involving the learners in games and kinesthetic activities, a lot of cooperative learning activities. Is there a way that a teacher can then connect that to the broader test, or the standardized test? So if you’re having the student do a retelling — or retelling of a story, or a reading passage, then this same activity can become an opportunity for assessment. There are a lot of teaching approaches and strategies that teachers can use to in particular reduce the nervousness, the affective load that students bring in when they’re nervous, and they’re not accustomed to working with students from other language backgrounds, or native speakers. Delia: So, as a teacher is listening to you right now and wondering how her assessment is going to prepare the child, what should she be thinking about? We want these students to relax enough to bring their defenses down, so that they can open themselves up to learning. There’s now a recent thrust about in the education field to help teachers understand that assessment is not simply for the purpose of auditing and counting and tallying, but that assessment itself can be used as a diagnostic tool for informing the teacher as to the immediate strengths, strengths and weaknesses, not just weaknesses, not just what the student does not know. What kind of classroom assessment should she be creating, or thinking about assessing in the child? Pierce: Well, when we talk about classroom-based assessment, there’s two kinds: The first kind is the teacher-useful assessment, and the second kind is the student-friendly assessment. Delia: Well, obviously, assessments help teachers determine what and how they teach, and you just talked about that, but can assessments themselves be used to promote learning? But the learning strengths and weaknesses of the learner by, number one, keeping records and documenting, and then number two, providing feedback, providing descriptive feedback to the learner as to how close or how far he or she is from the goal. So the teacher assessment can be observations of student behavior and performance, such as ability to read letters, recognize letters and sounds, sound/symbol discrimination. Delia: How does this type of assessment apply specifically to English language learner students and to their teachers? Pierce: English language learners can benefit tremendously from any kind of verbal or comprehensible written feedback that the teacher gives them that’s descriptive and productive and sends them on the path to learning. How do you teach children to use those for themselves? Pierce: Well, as I said earlier, there’s two categories of assessments, teacher-useful and student-friendly. The teachers can keep a checklist of reading skills. They can keep notes of when a student is making progress or having a particular problem. Narrator: Right now, he’s still very low in terms of reading, letter recognition. Simply giving the student back a paper, a writing paper with a C on it, does not give the learner any kind of direction for improvement. So scoring rubrics that can be complicated to design and use can be useful for the teacher. Documentation is such an important part of assessment, because all of us have our days go by very quickly, and we can quickly forget specific diagnostic details of student progress and learning. But a grade plus two or three comments on there, and I’m not talking about red inking the paper, bleeding the paper, that’s not going to help, that’s only going to intimidate. So color coding and using student-friendly feedback and symbols that reduce the language can help English language learners understand where they need to go next. For the students, when you want to translate this information to student-friendly language, it needs to be primarily put in the form of a checklist, and maybe not a 30 or 50-item checklist, but maybe a five-item checklist. So it’s so important to keep records such as checklists, anecdotal records, scoring rubrics. But what I’m talking about is one or two notes on what the student did well and what the student needs to work on further. I have worked with kindergarten and elementary teachers who they, themselves, have gone through a training sequence where they learn how to deliver this information to the students, even kindergarten and first grade students. And maybe you can convert it to a rating scale where they are A, B, C, or 1, 2, 3, or smiling face, whatever, frowning face on a checklist. Scoring rubrics which detail expectations for reading performance on a criterion reference scale. Pierce: English language learners with disabilities can be assessed using the same kinds of performance-based assessments, but perhaps with different kinds of materials, or different levels of materials. This kind of descriptive feedback is so helpful for students who are searching for how to improve, but simply a grade, simply does not provide that kind of direction. Pierce, that sounds like a difficult task for younger students. And you could have wall charts, you could have smiling faces, you could have games, all kinds of figures there, where the student realizes that he or she has accomplished step one, step two, goal one, goal two, maybe not with numbers but color-coded things, representations of accomplishment at different levels. But a range, so that the student, himself, is engaged in monitoring what he or she feels they have accomplished based on the learning in the classroom. Delia: What about assessing kids with disabilities, English language learners with disabilities? I know that English language learners with disabilities can be assessed using manipulatives, using pictures, using illustrations, which we tend to use with beginning level English language learners in any case. That sounds like something you could do with older students, but how do you do that with younger students? And then what they do is they get a reality check from the teacher, who sits with them after having taught them how to monitor their own learning, sits with them and says, "Okay, you say that you feel that you’re able to recognize words beginning with an "F" or a "T", show me that you can do that." So the teacher confirms and verifies what the student has, himself or herself, said they can do. It is no longer acceptable for a teacher to keep secret what the learning goals and objectives are in the classroom and how high the student must jump in order to get a particular grade, or pass a particular project. In the world of assessment these days, it is a widely known that both parents and students, since they’re being held accountable for meeting the criteria for standardized tests, and statewide tests as well as at the classroom level. So it’s the same kind of approach, but possibly with different kinds of instructional material that they’re used to using in the classroom. One must take a history of the learner and find out, number one, what kinds of previous instruction he’s had or she’s had. Delia: Given what you just said, are you saying that teachers should share some expectations, or the information on the teacher's own expectations with the students? They need to be informed before they see any kind of test or assessment what the objectives will be for the learning period, for the grading period, and how well he or she has moved toward that. Delia: Now, I asked you that question assuming that teachers would know that children had disabilities. And number two, interviewing the parents and finding out if the student’s had any learning issues, or previous teachers. Because without that, without sharing expectations and criteria, then both parents and students are aiming at either a moving target or an invisible target, and nothing’s harder to hit than a moving target or an invisible target. Often people talk about the difficulty in diagnosing someone with learning disabilities or misdiagnosing them if they’re second language learners. And then number three, interviewing the student, him or herself, because they can usually tell you many times what they feel are problematic tasks for them in the classroom. Delia: This sounds like a very rich and rewarding approach to teaching. And then again, most importantly on the part of the teacher, observation — observation of student — the student working in different tasks under different conditions, and comparing his before and after performance on these tasks. I’m wondering, how much one-on-one time does this take with young children? Delia: You’ve been talking about assessment, and giving us some of the good examples of how you do that. How much one-on-one time does this take with older students? Pierce: Lots of assessment, observation assessment, can be conducted while the students are working in small groups, or whole class. Pierce: Parents are definitely part of the assessment cycle, especially when it comes to elementary-aged children. I think some of our audience members might want to know what the next step is after assessment. And the one-on-one time comes in when you need more specific diagnostic information on an individual who may not appear — who appears not to be making progress. Because parents cannot only be useful as native language informants and as to the history of the child’s previous learning, literacy, and experiences, educational experiences, but parents can also help the child meet the goals. How do you tie — how you make sure your assessment is tied to instruction? Pierce: Well, the next step is informing instruction. So the one-on-one factor doesn’t have to be one-on-one with all 30 students or all 25 students, as long as you’re systematically keeping records of how the others are doing. They can only help the child if they know what the goals are. That is, for too long, teachers have been taught to believe that assessment is something you do at the end of a book, or chapter, or unit test, or end of a grading period. And so this really talks about conducting a collaborative classroom where the teacher makes time for students to engage in cooperative learning activities, or individually structured activities, so that he or she does have that time, once a week, once a day to meet with individuals or small groups at a time with whom he or she needs to conduct individual diagnostic assessments. Parents are such an important role of the assessment cycle. If they know what the learning objectives are, if they know what the teacher’s expectations are, and if they know what the kinds of tasks are that the learner’s being engaged to engage in. And that’s more evaluation, where you’re making a decision for some purpose. Delia: Is there a way to draw parents into this process? It may even be that the parents can engage the learners, the students, at home in a family literacy hour where they’re actually working, even if it’s family literacy in the native language. What do educators, administrators, and policymakers need to keep in mind as they think about assessment for English language learners, and parents, too, it sounds like? Pierce: I would say there’s at least three things they need to keep in mind. But assessment comes way before, and must inform evaluation, and it must inform instruction. Native language literacy led by the parents as role models has a tremendously positive effect on literacy in any other language. The first thing that comes to mind with No Child Left Behind and standardized tests being required now, and there’s higher consequences attached to them, I would say that one size does not fit all. schools that’s going to be problematic, so the first one is that different tests, just as we differentiate instruction at the classroom level we’ll need to differentiate assessment at statewide, national, and classroom levels. And assessment is something that needs to be conducted on a weekly, bi-weekly, monthly basis, so as to keep up with diagnosing student progress. One test cannot measure everyone’s growth toward specific objectives, especially if their language — their native language is not the same as the one on the test, or if they’ve had significantly different learning experiences. The second thing that needs to be taken into account is the role of parental involvement. So once you find out that the students, for example, are not able to summarize in your class. Narrator: Even in kindergarten an important ingredient of any reading program is assessment. Edward Kane'enui: We don’t want to start a program in September and wait 'til June to get a sense for whether or not we’re successful. We want to see how we’re doing in the middle of September, at the end of September, the beginning of November, every month we want to have some sense of whether or not the investment we’re making, the interventions we’re using are effective for kids. Parents more than ever need to be involved in the understanding, the comprehending of the expectations for their students — for their children, and the consequences for achieving or not achieving particular goals. Summarizing, putting a summary of reading comprehension in your own words, has been shown to be one of the most challenging tasks for children learning another language. We can’t do that without progress monitoring systems. Parents also need to be engaged helping in the classroom setting, native language resources, parental liaisons, having community meetings, and so on. Finally, I think one of the most important things for me, as a teacher/educator is that we need state legislation. Don’t forget to browse the recommended readings for this topic. So if you can image your own self learning Japanese or Russian or Spanish and I ask you to summarize something that you’ve read, you can probably read it and understand it, but putting that in your own words, that’s a different kind of task. What we have is the teacher comes in, and many times the teacher will have information given or passed on to her or him from powers that be saying, "Here’s the student, here’s his folder, here’s his standardized test, and here’s his language proficiency results." And that’s a lot for any teacher to go through. We need serious state legislation across the entire United States that requires teachers to acquire assessment literacy. And let us know what you thought about this program by taking our survey, which you can find on the main web page for this webcast. And that’s the kind of task where if the teacher determines that the students cannot put in their own words, or summarize what they’ve been reading about, then the direction for instruction is to give them the words, give them the examples, give them the models for how they can then summarize and accomplish that reading comprehension strategy. But the first thing the teacher wants to do, at the classroom level is to do some kind of a needs assessment, or a diagnostic assessment, or a pre-assessment based on what he or she is going to be planning to teach for the next few weeks as to diagnose, produce a diagnostic profile on each child. Most states do not have a requirement for teachers getting a license to learn anything about conducting systematic approaches to assessment literacy for diagnosing students. That needs to go hand in hand with school systems providing professional development opportunities for teachers to gather and get this kind of information that will allow them to put in place the kinds of classroom-based assessments we’ve been discussing. This program is a part of a larger series of professional development webcasts. Delia: It sounds as if you’re describing a sort of cycle of assessment that takes place in the classroom and in the program of instruction for English language learners. And then be able to perhaps place these children in reading groups based on the results of this diagnostic assessment, and also direct instruction for different levels of ability, and so on. Assessment is definitely a cycle that needs to be used to systematically and continuously inform the instruction, the direction of the instruction for the students to take them from where they are to where they need to be with regard to state standards. Please, visit our main web page for more information. If you were to try and give us the pieces of that assessment, what would they look like? Delia: With regard then to tests that aren’t necessarily classroom tests, how would you advise our audience to fit this whole notion of classroom assessment into the larger — the state tests, or into looking at themselves with regard to the growth that the kids are going to show on state tests? Pierce: All right, it is a fact that state tests are used to measure annual growth. And to find resources for teaching English language learners to read and information on how to reach out to their families visit our website, Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs. By definition therefore, they will not be sensitive to weekly and monthly growth. The Reading Rockets Professional Development Webcast Series is a production of WETA. This program was produced by WETA/Reading Rockets, which is solely responsible for its content. Therefore, while it may be wise to compare teacher and classroom assessments on an annual or semi-annual basis to the standardized test score, it would — using that test score would not be useful for informing weekly and bi-weekly, and monthly assessments that are going to be so much more specific to instruction, and so much more diagnostic than those broad statewide tests could ever be. The views expressed in the program are those of the speakers and do not necessarily reflect the views of WETA/Reading Rockets, our funders, or our partners.* To view this file, you'll need a copy of Acrobat Reader. Delia: So we’re talking about a very full program of assessment. This time we’ll catch a glimpse into the Mark Hopkins Elementary School in Sacramento, California, where teachers assess children who speak English, Spanish, Hmong, and more. Lee: We’re gonna do our letters, pictures, and sound. Most computers already have it installed, or you can download it now. Popular personal essay writers for hire usa buy astronomy presentation write my. homework writer website gb top dissertation hypothesis editing services uk. online esl case study ghostwriting service us pay to do top problem solving online.

Business Case Studies - Teaching business studies and AQA. Test yourself with our selection of 518 free English language quizzes covering grammar, usage and vocabulary for beginner, intermediate and advanced level English students. Simply answer all of the questions in the quiz and press submit to see your score and other statistics. Each ESL quiz is also available as a printable teacher handout. We also have a range of phrasal verb quizzes in our reference area. Learn business studies theory online with our extensive revision pages, download free case studies from real world companies and associated lesson materials.

Innovations in learning technologies for English. - TeachingEnglish George Whitehead Teachers’ Voices: Obstacles to Communicative Language Teaching in Korea 2. Rachel Kraut and Robert Poole In Their Own Words: Chinese EFL Teachers’ Attitudes & Beliefs towards CLT 3. Samantha Hawkins Cooperative Learning’s Role in in Enhancing Motivation through Autonomy: Possibilities and Limi-tations within a Japanese Context 4. I-Chen Chen Implementing writing portfolios in a college writing course: Perceptions of EFL college students 5. Jiuhan Huang, Xiangdong Gu, Yujie Yao and Yujing Zheng The Relationship between Self-Efficacy, Perceived Use of Listening Strategies, and Listening Profi-ciency: A Study of EFL Learners in China 6. Thi Huyen, VU and Van Trao, NGUYEN The Implementation of an Extensive Reading Project: Perceptions of Pre-university Students at Hanoi University Book Reviews 1. Culture and Identity through English as a Lingua Franca: Rethinking Concepts and Goals in Intercultural Communication Will Baker. Reviewed by Yingli Yang & Yumo Li, University of International Business and Economics, Beijing, P. China Continue Reading Foreword by Aradhna Malik Research Articles 1. Berlin/Boston: Walter de Gruyter, 2015, pp xi 284 Reviewed by Sibylle Ratz, Edinburgh Napier University. Exploring EFL Fluency in Asia Edited by Theron Muller, John Adamson, Philip Shigeo Brown, & Steven Herder, Palgrave Macmillan: London 2014. Stewart Gray – Always the Other: Foreign teachers of English in Korea, and their experiences as speakers of KSL 2. Darío Luis Banegas – Teacher-developed materials for CLIL: Frameworks, sources, and activities 3. Ju Seong (John) Lee – A Novice Native English Speaking Teacher in Korean Alternative School: Challenges and Negotiations in the First Years 5. Vedyanto – Evaluation of the ELT Textbook: ‘English in Mind 1 (2nd Edition)’ 6. Xuemei Li – Genre and Rhetoric Awareness in Academic Writing Instruction: Personal Narrative and Comparative Analysis Book Reviews 1. Resilient Teachers, Resilient Schools: Building and Sustaining Quality in Testing Times Christopher Day & Qing Gu Reviewed by Mehdi Haseli Songhori 2. Task-Based Language Teaching in Foreign Language Context Ali Shehadeh & Christine A. Coombe Reviewed by Qotboddin Jan-nesar M.& Khalil Motallebzadeh Continue Reading Foreword by Jun Scott Chen Hsieh Research Articles 1. Sompatu Vungthong, Emilia Djonov, & Jane Torr – Factors contributing to Thai teachers’ uptake of tablet technology in EFL primary classrooms 2. Salim Razı & Mustafa Tekin – Role of Culture and Intercultural Competence in University Language Teacher Training Programmes 3. Seonmin Huh & Young-Mee Suh – Translocal Literacy Practices with Korean Local Readers of English 4. Reviewed by Colin Walker, Myongji University, South Korea Continue Reading Foreword by AEFLJ’s Assistant Copy Editors Research Articles 1. Mehmet Sercan Uztosun & Ece Zehir Topkaya – A Cross-national Study into Pre-service EFL Teachers’ Career Choice Motivations in Germany, Japan, and Turkey 5. Reviewed by Carl Vollmer; Ritsumeikan Uji Junior and Senior High School; Uji, Japan 2. Xuan Minh Ngo – Diffusion of the CEFR among Vietnamese Teachers: A Mixed Methods Investigation 2. David Coniam, Wen Zhao, Yangyu Xiao, & Peter Falvey – Researching and Publishing in the English Departments of Chinese Tertiary Institutions: Status and Challenges 6. Williams & Eleni Oikonomidoy – Exploring the L2 Motivational Self System of Japanese Study Abroad Students Book Reviews 1. Discourse Analysis: Putting Our Worlds into Words Susan Strauss and Parastou Feiz. Rochelle Kyoko King and Jennie Roloff Rothman – Teachers’ Beliefs and Practices Concerning Learner Autonomy in the Language Classroom 3. Paiz – Uses of and Attitudes towards OWLs as L2 Writing Support Tools 4. Foreign Language Education in Japan: Exploring Qualitative Approaches Sachiko Horiguchi, Yuki Imoto, and Gregory S. Hitomi Abe – Americans’ Evaluation of Japanese Refusals in English 5. Howard Brown – Investigating the Implementation and Development of Undergraduate English-Medium Instruction Programs in Japan: Facilitating and Hindering Factors 6. Claire Rodway – Opening up Dialogic Spaces: Rethinking the Prescriptive Paragraph Structure in L2 Writing Pedagogy Book Reviews 1. Global Englishes (3rd Edition) Jennifer Jenkins Reviewed by Nooshan Ashtar 2. Assessment Myths: Applying Second Language Research to Classroom Teaching Lia Plakans and Atta Gebril Reviewed by Raveewan Viengsang Continue Reading Foreword Custódio Martins Research Articles 1. Nuttakritta Chotipaktanasook and Hayo Reinders Willingness to Communicate in Social Media: An Investigation of the Long-term Effects 2. Malcolm Sim and Peter Roger Culture, beliefs and anxiety: A study of university-level Japanese learners of English 3. Hawraz Qader Hama A Comparative Analysis of Kurdish Pre-service and In-service EFL Teachers’ Beliefs about English Language Learning 4. Georgiadou The role of proficiency, speaking habits and error-tolerance in the self-repair behaviour of Emirati EFL learners 5. George Elliott Koichi Whitehead The Rise and Fall of the National English Ability Test: Exploring the Perspectives of Korean High School English Teachers 6. Qing Shao and Paul Stapleton Marginalizing English in high-stakes tests: an attitudinal study in China Continue Reading 1. Li-Hao Yeh, Angela Yu-Chun Lu & Krystal Humes – Integrating the Awareness of Text Structure into Repeated Reading Intervention: Taiwanese EFL Students’ Reading Fluency and Reading Comprehension 2. Mehmet Asmalı & Saniye Sanem Dilbaz Sayın – The Effects of the Synectics Model on Vocabulary Learning, Attitude and Desire to Learn English 3. Ju Seong (John) Lee – An Ethnographic Research on a Novice English Teacher with a Ph. Degree for the First Years in a Korean EFL Context: Bridging the Gap between Unrealistic Expectations and Reality 4. Strelnikova – Author’s Position Expression in English and Russian Scientific Discourse: Challenges in Academic Writing Book Reviews Experiences of Second Language Teacher Education Tony Wright and Mike Beaumont Reviewed by Mariya Tseptsura Methodologies for Effective Writing Instruction in EFL and ESL Classrooms Rahma Al-Mahrooqi, Vijay Singh Thakur, and Adrian Roscoe (Eds.) Reviewed by Michelle Denese Kane Continue Reading 1. Carol Griffiths – Strategies for Developing English Language Writing Skills – Overall and Individual Perspectives 5. Mostafa Taghizadeh Langari and Mostafa Parvin Teacher Burnout and Its Effect on Effective Teaching as Perceived by Students 2. Nguyen Ho Phuong Chi – Creating a Professional Learning Community for EFL Trainee Teachers during the Teaching Practicum: The Roles of Practicum Mentors 6. Reza Khany and Khalil Tazik Creativity Styles and Thinking Styles among Iranian EFL learners 3. Tran Le Huu Nghia – Evaluating Qualities of English Teachers in Commercial English Language Centres: The Development of a Scale 7. Hooshang Khoshsima and Iman Izad On the Consideration of Existing ESP Syllabuses in Iranian Educational Setting Continue Reading 1. Nga Thanh Nguyen and Nga Dung Ngo Understanding Teacher Efficacy to Teach English for Specific Purposes 2. Thilina Inrajie Wickramaarachchi “I Can’t Read This! ” – The Impact of the Difficulty of Texts on ESL Reading Comprehension 3. Wijang Sakitri, Sandy Arief, Ida Maftukhah, and Tusyanah Strategies Used by Indonesia Businessmen for Communication via Email in Global Trade Era Continue Reading 1. Saleh Al-Busaidi Predicting Academic Achievement 2. Ruba Fahmi Bataineh and Alaeddin Khaled Alqatnani The Effect of a Thinking Maps®-Based Instructional Program on Jordanian EFL Tenth-Grade Students’ Critical Reading Skills 3. Hong Shi Examining the Effectiveness of Formative Assessment in English Vocabulary Learning of Senior High School Students in China Continue Reading 1. Hee Jun Choi and Octavia Mantik The Relationships between English Language Acquisition of Young Children in a Korean Private Kindergarten and Their Gender, Teacher–Student Relationship, Temperament, and Intrinsic Motivation 2. Ienneke Indra Dewi, Irfan Rifai, and Djuria Suprato Free online high – stake English test exercises: The evaluation, the learning, the teaching, and the model 3. Udomluk Koolsriroj and Malinee Prapinwong Expectation vs. A Blended Learning Approach to Teaching Writing: Using E-mail in the ESL Classroom Continue Reading 1. Reality: Voices of Thai Scholars Regarding the Demand for International Publications 4. Jeffrey Dawala Wilang and Wareesiri Singhasiri Specific anxiety situations in the intelligibility of Englishes as a lingua franca 2. Liping Liang, Pan He, and Wen Chen A study on goal orientations of English teaching and learning in a Chinese language learning centre 5. Jariya Sudtho and Wareesiri Singhasiri Exploring pre-service teachers’ professional identity formation through the lens of critical incidents 3. Phutsacha Tippanet and Pornpimol Sukavatee Effects of creative writing instruction: A comparison between face-to-face and online learning settings 4. Meixiao Lin Oral English proficiency of Chinese university students of different English levels in expressing their native culture 5. Nisita Rittapirom Development of Task-Based English oral communication course for EFL undergraduate tourism students 6. Chaehee Park English L2 spelling developmental patterns: Comparison of English only phonemes and common Phonemes Continue Reading 1. Muhammad Yunus and Taslim English lecturers’ perceptions of task-based reading teaching at ABA Universitas Muslim Indonesia 2. Tulud Probes on the rhetorical moves of research methods in research articles 3. Nadezhda Chubko Video making as a way to improve students’ grammar knowledge: A case-study of teaching grammar in the academic English classroom 4. Xie Qian Recent developments of China’s basic foreign language education: Review and reflections 5. Yusri, Annisa Romadloni and Mantasiah R Intercultural approach in foreign language learning to improve students’ motivation 6. Saidna Zulfiqar Bin Tahir Multilingual teaching and learning at Pesantren Schools in Indonesia Continue Reading Second language vocabulary acquisition is one of the most difficult and daunting tasks a language learner has to face. The last 30 years has seen an emergence in the importance of language learning strategies in language learning in general and, by extension, vocabulary acquisition. This dissertation assesses which vocabulary learning strategies learners use and how helpful they believe them to be among three different contexts in Japan. Continue Reading The current study investigated how an Assistant Language Teacher (ALT) and two Home Room Teachers (HRTs) co-constructed meaning with beginner 6-8 year old learners during whole-class picture book reading sections of EFL lessons in a Japanese elementary school. The study was qualitative, involving analysis of transcripts made from video and audio recordings, which were cross-referenced with the researcher’s reflective log. Continue Reading Teaching (CLT) in Albanian primary and secondary state schools, Albanian teachers, among others, are officially required to use communication-based textbooks in their classes. Authorities in a growing number of countries that are seeking to improve and westernise their educational systems are also using communication-based textbooks as agents of change. Behind these actions, there is the commonly held belief that textbooks can be used to support teacher learning as they provide a visible framework teachers can follow. Continue Reading Described as one of the best predictors of L2 achievement Foreign Language Anxiety (FLA) is a complex affective factor that has been well documented in EFL literature, yet the methods employed to investigate the phenomena have been largely constrained to surveys and traditional qualitative methods, such as diaries and interviews leaving gaps in our understanding of how it manifests itself in the student’s nonverbal behavior in real time. In addition to investigating FLA in relation to performance, this study is the first to analyze nonverbal behavior in an Asian context by adapting methods first introduced by Gregersen (2005). Though findings show a negative relationship using Spearman’s correlation ( = -.8, p This study discusses the roles of Native English Speaking Teachers (NESTs) in contemporary Japanese society through existing literature, and the results from questionnaires. Ever since the largest wave of NESTs started to work in Japanese public secondary schools in 1987 their roles have never been satisfactorily specified. NESTs are officially employed to offer students opportunity to improve their communicative ability. However, their roles are shaped by complex professional and societal factors. Reviewed by Deepti Gupta Panjab University Chandigarh, India This volume is mainly an account of the DIALANG project. Continue Reading This study discusses the roles of Native English Speaking Teachers (NESTs) in contemporary Japanese society through existing literature, and the results from questionnaires. Its description of the project is very thorough and, in places, quite critical and objective. Ever since the largest wave of NESTs started to work in Japanese public secondary schools in 1987 their roles have never been satisfactorily specified. Levitis Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research Rostock, Germany Of interest to English teachers, preservice teachers, and TESOL students and professionals, Language Teacher Research in Africa brings together […] Continue Reading Alderson, Charles J. The reader gets acquainted with the project while getting updated on […] Continue Reading This research investigated preservice EFL teachers’ beliefs about their roles as English teachers in Japan. NESTs are officially employed to offer students opportunity to improve their communicative ability. Objectives were three-fold: (a) to elucidate preservice EFL teachers’ beliefs regarding professional identity through a metaphor analysis in three research phases (i.e., pre-, mid-, and post-practicum phases), (b) to explore preservice EFL teachers’ underlying beliefs hidden behind metaphors, particularly regarding professional identity in the three research phases, and thereby (c) to examine preservice EFL teachers’ professional identity formation observed during the term of the investigation. However, their roles are shaped by complex professional and societal factors. 1-126 Reviewed by Esmaeel Hamidi The Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch Tehran, Iran Collocations Extra is one of the recent volumes of work within the field of vocabulary instruction that aims at developing language learners’ competence of collocations. Virginia: Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages, Inc., 2009. Continue Reading Much previous research has shown beliefs to be resistant to change. Continue Reading The aim of the book, 11 chapters based on Lena Heine’s Ph D thesis, is to investigate how learners mentally deal with content-focused activities in a foreign language by using the concept of problem solving tasks for which subjects do not have any immediate solutions. The book, primarily published […] Continue Reading Thomas S. Furthermore, when exposed to conflicting information, studies have also shown that people are likely to use it selectively to reinforce existing beliefs, the so-called biased assimilation effect. Continue Reading Phil Benson’s Teaching and Researching Autonomy (Second Edition) is a fully revised and updated follow-up to his widely read 2001 first edition, which proved to be an invaluable tool to introducing language teachers and learners to the concept of autonomous learning. Continue Reading This paper uses one case study at a Saudi Arabian university to illustrate the effects of competing Discourses on the identities of English language teachers in this context. Through an unpacking of their language teaching narratives, the notion of ‘global’ English language teaching emerges as a way of potentially resolving these conflicting identities/Discourses. Continue Reading Research has shown that teachers’ beliefs about language teaching are shaped by a myriad factors, among them, their own experiences as language learners, their pedagogical training, and the contexts in which they work (Borg, 2003; Fang, 1996; Freeman, 2002; Lortie, 1975). How their beliefs influence their practice has also been studied, and it has been found that whether teachers consistently put these beliefs into instructional practice varies considerably. For example, while some research on reading and literacy instruction has demonstrated a clear relationship between teachers’ theoretical orientations and what they do in their classes, other research has found this relationship to be weak, with teachers tending towards inconsistency; in other words, not doing what they believed was appropriate (Fang, 1996). Continue Reading In Asia, the dominance of English as a foreign or second language has greatly contributed to the prevalence of Standard English and Native English Speaking Teachers (NESTs). Japan, Korea, Hong Kong, and Taiwan have been officially recruiting NESTs to introduce ‘authentic’ Standard English to their citizens. However, as globalisation continues throughout the world, the genres featuring native speaker norms have been challenged for failure to equip English learners with English as an International Language (EIL) or World Englishes (WEs) competence to communicate with other non-native English speakers from different cultural and linguistic backgrounds in international settings. Continue Reading Dear readers, For over 15 years the Asian EFL Journal has provided both free access to over 9 million readers and free submission to 1,000s of authors. Times are changing and costs of maintaining the site, web staff and IT, etc. Each month we receive over 600 submissions to review and the number is growing as the demands on the profession to be published in reputable journals grow. From today we have had no choice but to impose fees on contributors, both those at the submission stage (US.00) and for those who are published a fee of US0.00. Access to the vast readership remains FREE of charge. I remember as a fledgling teacher in the British Council teaching centre in Hong. Online Courses MOOCs, providing large-scale and free learning. supported by numerous case studies which serve to keep the volume grounded. I would also like to thank all the writers for working with me and helping to make.

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