Get Help with an Essay from Competent Professional For resources specifically created for grades 7-12 students, see the other resources in this section. Please click on the links below to access Full OWL resources that may also be useful grades 7-12 instructors and students: Starting the Writing Process - This resource contains tips for instructors and student on beginning writing. Prewriting - This section explains the prewriting (invention) stage of the composing process. It includes processes, strategies, and questions to help you begin to write. Writer's Block / Writer's Anxiety - This resource contains help for overcoming writer's block and a short series of exercises to help students begin writing. Developing an Outline - This resource describes why outlines are useful, what types of outlines exist, suggestions for developing effective outlines, and how outlines can be used as an invention strategy for writing. Paragraphs and Paragraphing - The purpose of this resource is to provide some basic instruction and advice regarding the creation of understandable and coherent paragraphs. Transitions and Transitional Devices - This resource discusses transition strategies and specific transitional devices to help students' essays and sentences flow more effectively. Searching the World Wide Web - This section covers finding sources for your writing in the World Wide Web. Research: Overview - This section provides answers to the following research-related questions: Where do I begin? It includes information about search engines, Boolean operators, web directories, and the invisible web. It also includes an extensive, annotated links section. Evaluating Sources of Information - This section provides information on evaluating bibliographic citations, aspects of evaluation, reading evaluation, print vs. Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing - This resource will help you become more comfortable with the uses of and distinctions among quotations, paraphrases, and summaries. This handout compares and contrasts the three terms, gives some pointers, and includes a short excerpt that you can use to practice these skills. Avoiding Plagiarism - This resource offers advice on how to avoid plagiarism in your work—there are few intellectual offenses more serious than plagiarism in academic and professional contexts. Creating a Thesis Statement - This resource provides tips for creating a thesis statement and examples of different types of thesis statements. Establishing Arguments - This section discusses the thesis statement and explains argument in writing, which includes using research to support a thesis. This resources also discusses Aristotle's logical proof: ethos, pathos, and logos and the logical fallacies. Logic in Argumentative Writing - This resource covers logic within writing— logical vocabulary, logical fallacies, and other types of logos-based reasoning. Rhetorical Situation - This presentation is designed for instructors to use with students to introduce a variety of factors that contribute to strong, well-organiz ed writing. This presentation is suitable for the beginning of a composition course or the assignment of a writing project in any class. Writing a Research Paper - This section provides detailed information about how to write research papers including discussing research papers as a genre, choosing topics, and finding sources. Writing About Fiction - This resource covers major topics relating to writing about fiction. This covers prewriting, close reading, thesis development, drafting, and common pitfalls to avoid. Writing About Literature - This material provides examples and description about writing papers in literature. It discusses research topics, how to begin to research, how to use information, and formatting. Writing About Poetry - This section covers the basics of how to write about poetry. Including why it is done, what you should know, and what you can write about. Writing Definitions - This resource provides suggestions and examples for writing definitions. Adding Emphasis in Writing - This handout provides information on visual and textual devices for adding emphasis to student writing including textual formatting, punctuation, sentence structure, and the arrangement of words. Conciseness - This resource explains the concept of concise writing and provides examples of how to ensure clear prose. Paramedic Method: A Lesson in Writing Concisely - This handout provides steps and exercises to eliminate wordiness at the sentence level. Sentence Variety - This resource presents methods for adding sentence variety and complexity to writing that may sound repetitive or boring. Sections are divided into general tips for varying structure, a discussion of sentence types, and specific parts of speech which can aid in sentence variety. Using Appropriate Language - This section covers some of the major issues with appropriate language use: levels of language formality, deceitful language and Euphemisms, slang and idiomatic expressions; using group-specific jargon; and biased/stereotypical language. Punctuation - This resource will help clarify when and how to use various marks of punctuation. When speaking, we can pause or change the tone of our voices to indicate emphasis. When writing, we must use punctuation to indicate these places of emphasis. Proofreading Your Writing - This section provides information on proofreading, finding and fixing common errors. Commas - This resource offers a number of pages about comma use. Annotated Bibliography - This resource provides information about annotated bibliographies. MLA Formatting and Style Guide - This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (6th ed.) and the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing (2nd ed.), offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page. MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. APA Formatting and Style Guide - This resource, revised according to the 5th edition of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page. APA (American Psychological Association) is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. Our staff will provide individualized writing help online. Writing and Research Help by Email - Still have questions about your writing? Academic writing Our qualified writers can cope with any paper, whether it’s a simple essay or a complicated dissertation. All topics and paper types are. Formatting & Editing Flawless papers is our top priority. Your task will be.
How to Write an English Essay with Sample Essays - The primary audience for this FAQ are the mainstream (i.e. non-ESL) teachers at Frankfurt International School. For this reason some of the answers are related to the particular situation at FIS. to internal documents) will not work outside of the school's intranet. Most of the advice, however, will be of use to mainstream teachers of ESL students in any school situation. This will give you some idea how much English they know and will help you to have realistic expectations of what they will be able to understand and do in your lessons. Marking the names of the ESL students in your grade book, e.g. using an asterisk and a number for their level, is a good way to identify these students. Many teachers also note down the name of the ESL teacher of each ESL student. This can facilitate the liaison that is a very important aspect of our joint efforts to support ESL children as effectively as possible. Students who answer questions in class are working hard to show what they know or have understood and so they are usually not receptive to any feedback on the grammatical accuracy of their message. Moreover, it would probably embarrass them to have their mistakes corrected in front of the rest of the class. There are occasions however when the content of their message is unclear because the grammar is faulty. In these circumstances, it is acceptable to ask for elucidation and to help them if they do not know the correct way to express their idea. An indirect way to give corrective feedback is to provide the student with a model answer. There is conflicting research evidence as to whether this kind of feedback is effective, so it's best not to overdo it. As for written work, once again it is important that feedback is concentrated on the content quality of the answer rather than on its grammatical accuracy. It is discouraging for students who have worked hard to give a good answer to have their work covered in red ink for mistakes that are peripheral to the main purpose of the assignment. There is also the danger that they may get the message that surface accuracy is more important than conveying ideas or showing understanding. However, written work can generally be corrected without causing the student embarrassment in front of his or her peers, and you may well wish to draw attention to one or two of the grammatical mistakes that could interfere with understanding. It is also not unreasonable, for example, to expect the verbs in a piece of writing about a historical event to be in the past tense. Consider asking the student what kind of feedback he or she would like. Some students may welcome the chance to focus on their grammar mistakes with a view to eradicating them in future pieces of written work. Other students, however, will just completely ignore your corrections - and you can save your precious grading time! In general, it is worth pointing out that errors are a natural part of the language learning process. Students who are made to feel that mistakes should be avoided at all costs are likely to become inhibited and learn less quickly. Understanding mistakes in written language The consequences of focusing on grammar at the expense of communication Top Students are usually even more sensitive about their pronunciation than their grammar, so be very careful how you deal with such problems. If possible, it is probably better to pretend you have understood rather than ask the student to repeat himself 3 or 4 times or ask another student what he meant. You could always ask him again in private after the lesson; and help him to a correct pronunciation of important subject-specific vocabulary. It is very important that you do not allow other students to mock ESL students for their pronunciation or imitate their accents. And of course, you should never be tempted to do so yourself. Even if you are sure that the student in question can take a joke, there may be others of the same nationality in the class who would be offended. Top As with grammar, it may on occasion be appropriate to draw attention to spelling mistakes. It is reasonable to expect students to spell correctly the keywords in an assignment. If for example they are writing a homework about the water cycle, they should be corrected on mistakes in words such as etc. Most teachers will justifiably object to ESL students engaging in a general chat in their own language during lesson time. It may also be helpful to draw their attention to mistakes in common words that they always get wrong. This excludes the teacher and other students, and switches the students off from the focus of the lesson. The student's ESL teacher will of course be aware of the problem, and if it is really severe will have suggested ways for the student to practice spelling common words correctly - e.g. However, there are occasions where it can be quite acceptable for a student to speak his or her own language. Stronger students can quickly explain to less proficient students what the latter have not understood or what they have to do - this frees the teacher from constantly needing to check on the progress of the weaker student, allowing the teacher to devote enough attention to the other students in the class. It can be distracting to everyone, however, if an ESL student is trying to do a simultaneous translation of what you are saying while you are saying it. It is helpful therefore if the lesson contains a number of natural breaks in which less proficient students can be helped to understand the important points you have made or what they have to do next. In general, it is worth noting how important it is for students to be able to discuss their work in their own language. This not only helps to develop their understanding of the topic, but also serves to develop their mother tongue proficiency. There is more on this in my advice to parents about what they can do to help their child at home. There is one more point to make: it can be very useful if you yourself speak the native language of an ESL student in your class. You can then use the language to facilitate or check the student's understanding of a task or explanation. It is good for the student's self-esteem to know that you have learned and value her language. There are times in lessons when it is essential that a student understands a word in order that what comes next makes sense. On such occasions a quick search in the dictionary can be helpful (or alternatively, a compatriot might be able to provide the translation.) In general, however, students should be discouraged from looking up too many words in class, for two main reasons. Firstly, it does not allow them to develop the essential skill of trying to understand words in context; and secondly, it cuts them off from what you say next. Learning to use a dictionary accurately and effectively is not an easy skill, and many students take a long time finding a word, especially if they are trying to guess its spelling. They may often fail to locate the correct translation of the hundreds of words that have more than one meaning. If the prop of using the dictionary is to be discouraged, however, it is essential that the teacher makes an effort to make his or her spoken language comprehensible. (See my advice sheet on this topic.) It is also useful if the teacher can write key words on the board so that the student can look them up later in the lesson, or at home with the parents' help. The above advice refers to the use of a dictionary while a teacher is speaking to the class. The situation is a little different if the student is working individually on an assignment, when looking up words will not distract her attention from the teacher. Once again, however, it is undesirable if it is happening too often. If you see a student overusing her dictionary you might ask her what word she was looking up and try yourself, or ask another student, to give her an oral explanation. Alternatively, a compatriot could help her in her mother tongue. See my advice to students on the effective use of dictionaries. Top The most important advice is: Make it comprehensible! if you do this, the ESL students will not only learn your subject but English as well. Read more on the the theory of comprehensible input. If such conditions prevail, then there is no filter or barrier preventing the natural acquisition of language - provided that the input is comprehensible, interesting and relevant. Top For some ESL students direct eye contact with a teacher is considered disrespectful and could be construed as a challenge to the teacher's authority. This is the reason that Asian students in particular may avoid looking the teacher in the eye, especially when being reprimanded. Another ESL student behaviour that is sometimes misinterpreted is the brusqueness of their language; for example: "You shut the window! ", or "Give me 10 Euros." In most cases this is not rudeness or lack of cooperation but simply a manifestation of their limited English. It is a luxury of native or proficient speakers of English to express their feelings and requests politely, since politeness is usually conveyed in grammatically complex language: "I'm feeling cold. ", "I was wondering if I might possibly be able to borrow 10 Euros." Top A very useful way of determining the difficulty of a task is to refer to the model propounded by Professor J. ESL teachers are also very happy to advise on the likely difficulty of an assignment for any particular student or groups of students. My advice sheet Helping ESL students understand what they read contains suggestions on how to assess the difficulty to ESL students of written language. Top This is an essential question and there are many answers. For example, take a look at the list of suggestions made by the ESL students themselves in response to the question, and check out the list of guidelines for mainstream teachers. It is vital to ensure that ESL students can make sense of what you say in class. For this reason it is helpful if you are aware of the ways in which you can improve their chances of understanding what they hear. See the advice sheet Helping ESL students understand what you say for detailed suggestions on this topic. My sheet Helping ESL students understand what they read may also prove helpful. (These two documents emphasize the importance of activating background knowledge before having students read or listen to complex text.) You may also wish to read the suggestions below on cooperative groupings, which are very important for maximizing the ESL student's chance of producing language in the class. You can help further by explicitly teaching the study skills necessary in your subject. If you use a course book, you could show students how it is organized, where to find the glossary, how to make effective use of the table of contents, chapter headings, graphics and captions etc. Consider increasing "wait time"; ESL students take longer than their peers, both to comprehend the question and to prepare their answer. They generally benefit from a classroom where students are called on to reply to questions rather than allowed to shout out answers. They also feel more comfortable when lessons follow established routines; for example, they are expected to copy the homework from the board at the start of each lesson; the teacher always briefly previews what they will be doing that lesson; or the teacher spends the last 5 minutes of the lesson with quick-fire review questions on what was taught in that lesson. Alert students to cognates and other helpful mother-tongue equivalents. Asking a proficient student for the translation into Japanese or Korean of an important word you have been explaining often helps a shyer, less proficient ESL student with what she had been struggling to understand. Hearing different languages in the classroom sends an important message to students. Another way that you can help ESL students is to provide a model of what you are expecting them to do. This is especially useful when the task is to produce an extended piece of writing - but it is also of value when the assignment is a poster or oral presentation. You could prepare your own "perfect" answer or you could keep pieces of work done on the same assignment by students in other classes or previous years. It is often helpful to discuss poorer pieces of work and have students analyse why these don't meet the requirements. A final suggestion: How about asking the students themselves how you could make it easier for them in your lessons? Important: ESL students need to have grade-appropriate cognitive challenges. Making things easier for ESL students in the mainstream classroom means making accommodations that help them to do the tasks that the native speakers are expected to do. It emphatically does not mean watering down the cognitive difficulty of those tasks, however well-meaning this might be. I have produced a graphic to illustrate how a task can be made achievable by ESL students without reducing its cognitive demands - namely, by expressing the task in comprehensible language and by providing appropriate assistance. (This kind of assistance is often called scaffolding.) Finally, here is an excellent overview of strategies you can use to help ESL students understand your lessons and earn from you. Top Assume that you have followed the advice given in the answer to the previous question, and have done what you reasonably can to help ESL students understand the new information, skills and concepts that you have been teaching them. You now want to set a major piece of homework to deepen or assess this understanding. What final steps can you take to optimize your students' chances of doing a good job in this homework? In response to this question it is helpful for teachers to know the advice given to ESL students who wish to do good homework, namely to follow the UDS method and ensure that they: Teachers can assist students in heeding this advice by allowing sufficient time during the class or after it for students to ask for elucidation of the task. Of course, it is helpful to students if the task is written on the board, or on a sheet that is given to them. Students should be encouraged to take notes in their own language as the teacher is explaining what to do. Same-nationality students who have better English can be asked to explain the work to their less proficient peers, using their shared mother tongue. It is also helpful to show the students the criteria by which the task will be assessed. Giving students model answers or allowing them to analyse the shortcomings of less than perfect work (done, for example, by students in the previous year's class) will also help them to understand exactly what they have to do and the form in which it should be done. Students appreciate being told the minimum length requirements, and they certainly need to be clear on due dates. ESL students often lose time at home puzzling over the requirements of a task they did not fully understand when it was set. ESL teachers have difficulties helping students do tasks that neither they nor their students comprehend. To avoid this wasted time and frustration, mainstream teachers are well-advised to do what they can to ensure that the students know exactly what is expected of them. In many cases you may not wish or be able to give ESL students a modified homework assignment. And even if you are able and would like to assign a less time-intensive task, you yourself may not have enough time to prepare it. However, it is important to note that ESL students often need to spend two or three times as long to complete a task as it takes the native speakers in the same class. Some students at FIS regularly stay up beyond midnight to get all their homework done and rarely have the time to recharge their batteries. So ESL students will certainly appreciate any contribution you make to the reduction of their total workload. Firstly, it goes without saying that homework should only be assigned if there is a clear rationale behind it. But even if the homework fulfils a particular learning purpose, you may find it possible to allow ESL students to skip it on occasion or to do it when their homework schedule is currently not so full. Secondly, you may find be able to reduce the scope of the task; for example, by decreasing the word count of a piece of writing, the minimum length of a science presentation, or the number of questions expected to be done in a mathematics homework. Thirdly, you could replace a long, linguistically-demanding reading homework text with a shorter, less complex one on the same subject. There are various online resources that provide versions of the same content with varying length and linguistic complexity. [An example is Newsela.] And if you are assigning Google research, you could show students how to filter the results by reading level to ensure that they are not attempting texts that will clearly be beyond them. Finally, you could determine how long it would be likely to take the average native-speaker in your class to complete the assignment and tell the ESL students to work on the assignment for that length of time, then stop. ESL teachers at FIS are very flexible about allowing extra time in ESL lessons for students to complete other subject work that they had no time to finish at home, or to start the work in class and therefore need to spend less time on it later that evening. If you feel that any given homework assignment is likely to be demanding and thus time-consuming, or if you are not sure if it will be, you are recommended to contact the students' ESL teacher. He or she will be able to advise on the demands of the task, and will be happy to suggest - and in most cases to prepare - a modified task. It is clear that ESL students need to spend longer on homework than native-speakers, and may occasionally need to stay up very late to complete it. But it is important that this does not happen regularly. Any excessive time spent doing homework eats into the time when they should be relaxing, pursuing their hobbies, or just reading for pleasure. Students who are tired and stressed because of homework demands and lack of opportunities to "switch off" will not be fresh and productive in the classroom, and may well become sick. Top It is notable how often mainstream teachers comment that the students in the class who generally need the most help, namely the ESL students, are the ones least likely to ask for it. Firstly, the ESL students may simply not feel that their proficiency in English is good enough for them to ask the right questions or understand the teacher's answers. Furthermore, ESL students may feel embarrassed to show their lack of understanding in front of the rest of the class; better to say nothing than have the other students think that you are slow or stupid. ESL students who were proud of their achievements in their previous home-country school may feel it demeaning to now be so reliant on the teacher, and prefer to keep face rather than expose their helplessness. It is possible, finally, that some ESL students believe that by asking many questions or frequently asking for help, they somehow convey the the idea that the teacher has not done a good enough job in teaching them. The advice to the teacher with ESL students in the class is to structure lessons so that there is some time when students are working individually or in small groups. This allows the student to ask questions or for help without being exposed to the attention and possible derision of the full class. It also allows the teacher to approach students suspected of struggling and discreetly offer help. Top The best way that parents can help at home is to discuss with their child, in their own language, the work in progress. Teachers could also make it clear to their ESL students that they are generally available to answer student questions after class or during break and lunch. There is more detailed advice on this on the parents' pages of this website. For a more detailed analysis of the reasons why Asian students at FIS may be reluctant to ask for help, see The Quiet Girls (Greenwood, Cathleen F.. It would be useful to refer parents to these pages when you call them or meet them to talk about their child's progress. Additionally, you could reinforce the constant message we ESL teachers give students and parents about the importance of extensive reading in English - particularly of non-fiction texts. As Cummins points out: "If ELL (ESL) students are not reading extensively and understanding what they read, they have little hope of bridging the gap in academic language proficiency between themselves and native speakers of English.", Cummins, J. 3 Top The best thing to do is to alert the ESL teacher so that a special action plan can be worked out. You may also wish to tell the parents what they can do to help. Before suggesting private tuition, it is recommended that you contact the ESL teacher. See the newsletter article about private tuition if you want to read the advice we give to ESL parents when they ask if this is necessary for their child. Top If a student does poorly in one of your tests, it is helpful to analyse with her the possible reasons. These could be any of the following (or a combination of them): Obviously, a child who doesn't work hard through the term, or who lacks good test-preparation and test-taking strategies, will struggle to do well in tests, and these issues should be addressed by the teacher. The other reasons listed above, however, are more to do with language ability, and you may wish to adopt a flexible response in order to help the ESL student show what she has learned and understood. For example, you may wish to prepare an ESL version of the test. Alternatively, you could make sure you are on hand during the test to explain what the questions mean. Or you could allow the student to write part of an answer in her own language and then explain it to you or have it translated after the test. ESL students usually need more time than their native-speaking peers to complete the test. It takes the pressure off them a little if they know they will have the chance to continue into break or finish off in the ESL lesson. Of course, it is very important that the language of the test questions and tasks is unambiguous, so the student can quickly understand what she has to do. [See my advice on how to make tests and worksheets comprehensible.] Top Plagiarism is quite common among ESL students and can have many causes. Please contact the child's ESL teacher if the problem persists despite implementing some of the advice on how to deal with it. Top It is helpful if you know a little about the ESL students' backgrounds and interests, since this will enable you to make connections to their personal lives. At the ESL placement interview the ESL teacher finds out this information and then sends it out to all concerned by e-mail. Little things can be important, such as spelling the child's name correctly and learning how to pronounce it with some accuracy. It is also helpful in class to seat ESL students with native-speakers who are sympathetic and encouraging. You can also devise group activities in which the ESL student's contribution is essential to the successful completion of the task. ) On a more general level, it is useful if the culture and history of the student can be incorporated into lessons. [More] It is important that students feel teachers respect their cultures as much as the dominant cultures of the school. (The ESL department has a very useful set of materials of the different countries of the world, called Culturegrams. There is also another set in the school library.) Cummins (1996) has an excellent explanation of the importance of integrating ESL students' cultures and background experiences into your lessons, thereby validating their personalities and identities: ".. when students' language, culture and experience are ignored or excluded in classroom interactions, students are immediately starting from a disadvantage. Everything they have learned about life and the world up to this point is dismissed as irrelevant to school learning; there are few points of connection to curriculum materials or instruction and so the students are expected to learn in an experiential vacuum. Students' silence and non-participation under these conditions have frequently been interpreted as lack of academic ability or effort, and teachers' interactions with students have reflected a pattern of low expectations which have become self-fulfilling." Cummins J (1996) In the mainstream English class where Romeo and Juliet is being studied, the teacher could ask students if there are similarly celebrated stories of thwarted love in the literatures of their cultures. [More from Cummins on the importance of affirming ESL students' personal and cultural identities.] Top An excellent way of integrating ESL students into your class is via cooperative activities. Researchers have found that language learning takes place most effectively when learners are engaged in interesting tasks that allow plenty of meaningful interaction with sympathetic native speakers. However, it is not enough to just put the ESL student with 2 or 3 others and hope for the best. If this happens, there is a danger that the ESL student will take on a peripheral role - or have it forced on her. Therefore, it is most beneficial if the group activity is so structured that the outcome is dependent on the contributions of ALL the group members. First each member of each group chooses or is allocated a sub-topic. Those having the same sub-topic, say river pollution, meet together to discuss and research that sub-topic. The students then return to their original groups where they report on what they learned in the sub-topic groups. Group members then discuss how to include this information in their final report or presentation. Using this method, the contribution of each group member is critical to the final outcome. To provide extra support to ESL students, you could arrange it so that they are given an easier sub-topic or task, or that the sub-topic group they go to contains a same nationality peer. In summary, it can be said that pair or group work is important for ESL students because it gives them the chance to express their ideas and opinions or ask questions (of the teacher or other group members) on a smaller than in front of the whole class. It also gives the teacher a much better chance to offer individual and unobtrusive help. There is a more extensive discussion in the following article, which also contains a wealth of other useful information: Strategies for Involving LEP Students in the Mainstream Classroom [Further information about cooperative grouping can be found in: , Sears, C. I have a copy of this book in my room if you would like to borrow it.] Top In my room I have a comprehensive set of materials called Culturegrams. These contain information about every country in the world on topics such as: history, language, customs, food, holidays, education system, lifestyle, recreation, and many more. There is a further set of these materials in the library. Else Hamayan has devised an interesting graphic that makes it clear there is more to culture difference than the obvious elements of music, food and dress.] Top It is rarely productive to try and cajole a reluctant beginner into answering questions in class. There is a well-attested silent period that some ESL students go through in which they are not prepared to volunteer any spoken information. In most cases however these students are learning and will emerge from their silent cocoon some time later with a surprising ability to express themselves orally. [...] The child, during this time, is simply building up competence by listening, via comprehensible input. His first words in the second language are not the beginning of his second-language acquisition; rather, they are the result of the comprehensible input he has received over the previous months." The issue is more complicated for silent students who are in their second or subsequent years at the school. They may in fact desire the opportunity to participate orally, but do not yet have the language processing skills to quickly understand the question and formulate their answer in English. They are disadvantaged therefore in classes with rapid teacher-student interchanges, particularly where the students are not called on but allowed to respond at will. If teachers allow sufficient processing time, then ESL students may feel comfortable in raising their hand to answer. If they still remain silent, it may be reasonable for the teacher to call on the student directly - particularly if it is a closed question with a short answer†. But in general this should be done only if it is believed that the student will have a correct answer, and not if he or she is generally shy or lacking in confidence. Shy students will feel very stressed in class if they believe that the teacher may call on them at any time. Conversely, some students may feel the teacher has no confidence in them if they are never called on. A final point: if the course includes opportunities for cooperative activities then the student will be able to communicate orally in a setting much less threatening than in front of the whole class. † There is more about question techniques in these two video I made for FIS students preparing to teach ESL students in the Kalahari: questions in theory - questions in practice. * Teachers wishing to review the research on the issue of silent students are recommended to read the following article: Priviliging of Speech in EAP and Mainstream University Classrooms: A Critical Evaluation of Participation Ellwood, C. TESOL Quarterly 43/2 2009 Top There is a detailed answer to this question elsewhere on this site. In short, assessments, both formative and summative, will often need modifying in order to make them fair and reliable ways for ESL students to demonstrate knowledge and skills in your subject. Other accommodations, such as allowing extra time to complete the assessment, may be necessary. Students whose English proficiency is as yet limited may need different assessments altogether than the rest of the class. ESL teachers can advise on the language demands of a given task, and suggest modifications and accommodations to make it a fairer and more accessible way for ESL students to demonstrate content knowledge and skills. Top This is a complex issue, and closely related to the previous question: How should I assess my ESL students? In general, students who have reached a certain level of English proficiency (at FIS this means students in ESL2, Advanced or Transitional classes) should be assessed and graded according to the same criteria as the other students in the class. This may mean that for some students their grades are low at first, but nevertheless it is important that ESL students, together with their parents and their ESL teacher get accurate feedback on the standards they are reaching in their mainstream classes. Such a grading policy also helps the ESL teacher to determine at the end of the year if the student is in need of further support in the following year. (It can be difficult to recommend that a child continues in ESL if his grades in the other subjects have been artificially inflated. ) Within the above guidelines, however, it is still possible to treat ESL students in a way that is appropriate to their particular status and needs. Sympathetic is a useful term to describe this special treatment of ESL students in terms of grading and assessment. It means for example that students are given credit for demonstrating understanding even if their ability to express their understanding in clear and accurate English is limited. It means that they are not graded down for grammar and spelling mistakes (unless these are an integral and clearly stated part of the assignment.) It means further that students have the chance to give an oral explanation of answers that they were not able to write down very clearly. It also means that they may be allowed the chance to redo homework or retake tests. Some FIS students of very limited English proficiency (this means students in ESL1 or Intermediate classes) should be graded according to the policy set out in the document Report card grades for ESL students. Top It need not, since many of the strategies which are good for ESL students are good for the others, too. This is a situation where the internal grouping of students takes on greater importance. It is generally helpful if ESL students can be paired or grouped with others from a different language background, although it can be useful if beginners can also have the chance to be helped in their own language. In general, the advice is to teach to the native speakers in the class so that the cognitive demand on students is not compromised. There is an interesting discussion of the dangers of reducing the cognitive level in the classroom in Vol. 47/1 of the English Language Teaching (ELT) Journal. Mackay, R.) The ESL department holds a copy of this article if you wish to read it. You may also wish to read my answer to parents who ask a similar question. Top Much of the work that is set in the mainstream (whether to do in class or at home) takes the ESL students much longer to accomplish than the native-English speakers. Of course, mainstream teachers are aware of this and may attempt to adapt the tasks that the ESL students have to do. This concern for ESL students is admirable, but it carries with it two dangers. The first danger is that the cognitive demands of the task may be reduced, or that the task may be replaced by different, simpler task. ESL students can certainly be helped by making the language of tasks easier to understand, but they have the same cognitive abilities as the other students and should be required to use them in the completion of the same assignments. The second danger is that the teacher ends up spending so long on regular adaptation of materials for ESL students that he or she does not have the time or energy to devote to preparing engaging and instructive lessons for the class as a whole. A solution to the dilemma of ensuring that ESL students are cognitively challenged but do not end up working twice or three times as long on an assignment as a native-speaker is to reduce the amount of work they have to do. For example, instead of requiring them to do 20 word problems in mathematics unit, permit them to do 12. Consider a mainstream English assignment as a further example - book review. Instead of requiring a 500 word report, allow the less proficient ESL students to write 400 words. Do not, on the other hand, permit them to write only about plot and not about theme or mood, since this reduces the cognitive challenge of the task. The ESL department is very happy to advise on the modification of materials to make them linguistically more accessible to ESL students. Top How the liaison takes place is a matter for each subject teacher to determine in consultation with the ESL teacher. Some prefer to have a brief regular meeting to discuss work in progress and students of concern; while other find it easier to keep in contact by e-mail. See the sheet of general information about how ESL teachers can help, containing a list of times that they are free to discuss with you or visit one of your classes. Top The decision about the initial placement of a student is made after the student has been interviewed by an ESL teacher who assesses the linguistic competence of the student in the major language skills of listening, speaking, reading and writing. (The reading test generally consists of a short story taken from the appropriate grade level literature anthology.) The student's educational and language background is also taken into account. In cases where a student falls between two levels, the wishes of the parents and/or the student are taken into account. Subsequent placement depends on the student's progress in English as assessed against the ESL objectives. Placement changes can take place at any time, although they are generally not considered desirable in the last two months of the school year. A majority of changes take place between one school year and the next. The placement decision does not only depend on the child's linguistic proficiency, as measured against ESL course objectives, but on such factors as the child's nationality, motivation and ability to work independently. An essential part of the decision-making process is the continuing discussion with the child's subject teachers about her progress in those subjects, including the level and quality of her participation in all of the class activities, her results in tests, the quality of her homework etc. The child's longer-term academic plans are often also taken into consideration after discussions with the parents. Top Some of the indicators of a learning disability that are exhibited by an English native speaker are also shown by ESL students in the first stage of their English language development. These indicators include difficulty in following oral instructions, poor eye tracking when reading, inconsistent spelling, limited attention span, avoidance of eye contact, etc. The crucial difference is that the problems experienced by the learning-disabled native speaker are for the most part permanent, whereas ESL students display such behaviours for a temporary period only. There are significant variations in the duration of this temporary period for ESL students. It is important, therefore, that mainstream teachers are aware that a normal (i.e. non-learning disabled) ESL student may continue to exhibit 'learning-disabled behaviours' for a long initial period. Such students should not be prematurely labelled as having a learning problem when in fact they simply have a temporary language or acculturation problem. Nevertheless, every so often we have an ESL student who doesn't make the progress expected of him or her, even allowing for the large variations in the speed at which English language proficiency develops. In most cases such a student will have been identified by an ESL teacher, and the 'learning-disabled specialist' will have been contacted in order to undertake a joint diagnosis. This diagnosis will usually include testing in the child's mother tongue. If the child does indeed turn out to have learning problems, then some kind of additional support is offered. This may, at Frankfurt International School, involve the replacement of the child's German class with lessons in Learning Support/Academic Workshop. If you suspect that an ESL student's difficulties in your class are the result of more than a simple lack of English language proficiency, please collect evidence and contact the child's ESL teacher. It is helpful for the ESL teacher to know, specifically, the types of task that cause the student problems and the kinds of atypical behaviour that the student exhibits. The ESL program manual of the US Department of Defence contains excellent, detailed information and advice on how to diagnose and respond to the learning disabilities of ESL students. For a further detailed discussion of the issue, refer to the following article, a copy of which is available in room 289: (pp.243-277). The topic is given comprehensive coverage in this more recent work by Hamayan: Special Education Considerations for English Language Learners: Delivering a Continuum of Services. Top There may be many occasions in the school year when you will have contact with ESL parents; for example at the International Meal or during Back to School Night or Open House. In particular you may need to talk to them on the phone or during parent conferences to discuss their child's progress. In all of the dealings with parents, it is important to modulate your language in such a way that it can be more easily understood. Of course this does mean not patronising them by speaking more loudly or excessively slowly, or using "baby language". What it does mean is that you may have to repeat or rephrase the important parts of your message. You should also try to avoid most of the idioms and colloquialisms that are typical of natural everyday language between native speakers. Telling a parent that her daughter takes a long time to is likely to be met by a confused stare! You should be aware too that much of the school jargon that we use without thinking about it will be inaccessible to ESL parents. For example, it is unrealistic to expect them to know what you mean when you talk about . (More on school jargon.) You also need to be careful with euphemisms. While they may be appropriate and expected by native-English speaking parents, your message may not be understood by ESL parents. To tell a Korean mother that her son does , and then give specific examples of how he could participate more. (More on euphemisms) You need be a little careful, however, since some parents may regard the difficulties their child is having as reflecting poorly on themselves and their family as a whole. You should also know that many ESL parents will feel very uncomfortable if they think that other parents or students can hear what you are saying about their child. For this reason, you are strongly recommended to close the door of the room in which you are having the meeting or conference with the parents. In general it is important that parents are not left feeling frustrated, confused or embarrassed after meeting with you. Making ESL parents feel valued and welcomed in our school and involving them in the education of their child is an essential aspect of helping the child to fulfil his or her potential. (More on making language comprehensible : written language spoken language) Top Some ESL students at FIS suffer from physical, emotional or behavioural complaints that are caused by culture shock. The shock can be caused by difficulties in adjusting to Germany and German culture. It is more likely however to be the result of trying to cope with the demands of a very different school system from the one they have left behind. The effects of culture shock - or to be more precise, school shock - are described in some detail in my article to parents elsewhere on this site. My intention here is to make mainstream teachers aware of some of the teaching practices at FIS that may be unfamiliar and stressful to ESL students. Of course it is not suggested that colleagues change their teaching methodologies to avoid all possibility of discomfiting ESL students. But an awareness of the points below will often be sufficient to prevent teachers drawing the wrong conclusions about the behaviour and attitude of the ESL students in their classes. It can help to alleviate stress if ESL students feel that the teacher is knowledgeable about and sympathetic to their difficulties. Teachers can also help adjustment to the new culture by reinforcing the student's pride in his own culture. (More on this) Students may feel threatened by the amount of participation expected of them in class, preferring to remain silent for fear of �showing off� or losing face by giving the wrong answer. They may also perceive a wrong answer as causing the teacher to lose face and, for the same reason, feel uncomfortable with the idea of asking questions or for help. Of course not all ESL students come from countries whose educational culture is different in the ways listed above. And most of those who do will not experience more than a temporary discomfort on joining our school. What is common to all ESL students, however, and probably the main cause of school shock, is the huge mental effort required to work for more than 8 hours a day learning new content in a foreign language. For this reason it is clear that students will benefit directly from any efforts by teachers to make the classroom language and homework tasks as comprehensible as possible. Ways to do this are described in the following articles: Top Many ESL students are very motivated to learn English as quickly as possible. They spend a lot of extra time at home doing language work of one type or another, and often their parents pay for private tuition. Unfortunately, in more than a few cases, this time and money could be better spent. The single best thing that students can do at home to improve their English is to read extensively in the language. It is the best thing because it allows students to engage in an activity that most enjoy - particularly if they are able to choose their own reading material . And it is the best thing because it has been shown* that extensive reading not only improves students' reading skills - as is to be expected - but also has a marked effect on other aspects of their language too, in particular on their writing ability. There is also plenty of research evidence to show that learners of English who simultaneously maintain and develop their proficiency in the mother tongue do better in school. For this reason parents can be advised on the benefits of their child reading good literature or non-fiction in their native language too. So if you are asked the question above, please advise students and parents on the considerable benefits of reading in both languages. At the same time, however, it would be good to suggest that they contact the ESL teacher for more specific advice on the kinds and levels of reading in English that the child should be doing, because this will play a significant part in the success of any such program. Top As ESL teachers at FIS we have two concerns; one immediate and daily, and the other long-term. The immediate concern is to help students do assignments that will satisfy them and their subject teachers. The long-term concern is to help the students learn enough English that they can function successfully in the mainstream without ESL support. The amount of time that is devoted to each of these concerns depends on the particular group of students and the time of year. So, for example, more time is spent on other subject work with beginning students than with more advanced students. Students generally become more independent as the year progresses, so more time is devoted to general language and skills development towards the end of the year than at the beginning. Beginning ESL students tend to lose their voice and their personality when they enter the mainstream classroom in the first few months at FIS. They may believe themselves to be or even be made to feel stupid. For this reason we incorporate into our teaching activities that allow students to demonstrate their intelligence, their imagination and creativity, their linguistic knowledge (of their own language) and their personality. Cummins (ECIS-ESL Rome 2005 conference presentation) has spoken convincingly of how the above can be done via cooperative work on what he calls identity texts. There are examples of identity texts in the Dual Language Showcase. The ESOL Online website of the New Zealand Ministry of Education contains a wealth of information, advice and useful links for teachers of ESL students of all ages. How to Write an English Essay. While taking English courses in high school and college, you'll likely be assigned to write essays. While writing an essay for an English class may seem overwhelming, it does not have to.
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More advice about teaching ESL students FAQ White Smokes online grammar checker is the best grammar checker software available for identifying and fixing grammar mistakes in academic documents, business letters, and anything else. The grammar checker checks and corrects all common errors found in writing. With this online grammar checker from White Smoke you can proofread the text with just a simple click of the mouse. Our online grammar checker will prevent the embarrassment of sending out text riddled with grammar errors. A document that has been through our English grammar checker will look more professional, ensuring that get the new client, close that deal, or ace that term paper. The grammar checker software will spot errors that most human readers would not catch. Discover the simple way to raise your kid a millionnaire. Get step-by-step age specific kids and money lessons. You'll have a wealth of step-by-step lessons, tools, resources and expert advice right at your fingertips. A philosophy of teaching includes a teacher’s conception of teaching and learning and an explanation of how the teacher teaches. It also includes explanation why the teacher teaches in a certain way and outlines his/her basic teaching methodology. The philosophy of teaching demonstrates that the teacher has certain values and has been reflective about the quality of her/his teaching."My philosophy of teaching English? There is no standard format or required content, therefore it is so challenging for most job applicants to write it. " The TEFL interviewee twisted in her seat, tugging at the collar of a blouse that was suddenly too tight. It is usually written either in prose or in question-answer format. Here are the basic features of writing a teaching philosophy: Every teacher is a personality and has his or her own philosophy about teaching and learning. I spent my life travelling, studying, and teaching in such culturally diverse countries like China, Australia, Cyprus, Papua New Guinea, Lithuania, Denmark, Poland, Italy, UK, Russia, Germany, United States, Brazil, Thailand, Singapore, and a few more countries. I believe that travelling and working in culturally diverse environments is one of the most effective ways of shaping a personality. Ginger Software is the leading contextual grammar checker on the market today. Based on a full sentence context, Ginger can automatically correct severe spelling and grammatical mistakes at an unmatched success rate. It enables users to produce error-free texts, quickly and easily. The product operates as an online service and supports MS-Word, MS-Outlook, MS-Power Point, Internet Explorer and Firefox. Ginger Software's mission is to facilitate error-free writing, particularly for those who use English as a second language or for those with learning difficulties like dyslexia. A unique text-correction algorithm automatically analyzes the context of errors in written English and selects the most appropriate semantic and grammatical correction. Everyday Survival Kit for English Learners has been designed so that students can learn to talk really fast. They will learn to speak by using a simple and reliable method. Basic Skills provides high quality educational products to help you evaluate your students' academic progress and to prepare them for achievement testing. Who is this FAQ for? The primary audience for this FAQ are the mainstream i.e. non-ESL teachers at Frankfurt International School. For this reason some of the answers are related to the particular situation at FIS. Some of the.
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Free College Essays, Term Paper Help, and Essay Advice. In this essay, I'm going to give advice to the high school freshman class to help them out with their last four high school years and to help them be successful. The advice that I am going to give might and probably will help freshmen, whether they are in-coming or already enrolled. The first piece of advice that I believe will be the most helpful is to turn in your paperwork on time, or have it done early if possible. Make sure that you get it turned in on time to get the maximum number of points. And also make sure that you have a separate folder and notebook for EVERY class. In high school, it can be easy to get your papers mixed up because many of teachers give you homework everyday. If you really have to use another notebook to write something down, tear that piece of paper out and stick it in the folder for that class. The second piece of advice is to take the time to study the information that the teachers give to you. Study for tests and quizzes several days before the exam, especially for semester tests. Some teachers make that grade worth one-third of your semester grade, and if you really want to get a good grade and do well in school, you need to study all of the time. If you are stuck on a problem or idea and don't understand it, don't be afraid to ask the teacher for help or a friend who is smart. It always pays off to ask for that extra help if you don't get something. The third tip is to not skip class because you don't want to go or because you don't have your homework finished. If the teacher, someone that is looking at you suspiciously or the principal catches you, you know that you are going to get caught. You will have to pay the consequences for skipping class. To add something else, you might miss a class discussion, or you might miss the homework assignment the teacher would be assigning for the class work for today. For freshmen, it can be easy to get lost or go into the wrong class by accident. There are always people that will be happy to help you get to where you need to be at the right time. A tip that someone gave me once is that the "100's" are downstairs and the "200's" are upstairs. For example, if you have a class that is in room 108, you know your class is located downstairs. The upperclassmen might play tricks, jokes or pranks on you. One of the tricks I have heard them pull is to sell you an "elevator pass." There is no such thing because the elevator is only to be used by people who have disabilities. It's not to be used by students who are capable of using the stairs unassisted. For some young people, walking into the high school on the first day of their freshmen year can seem scary because you don't know very many people. You also might be a little nervous when that first bell rings, signaling you to find your first class. But always know that if you are having trouble with school or finding your way around, ask someone, because there are always people to help you. I hope that I have given you some advice that will be helpful throughout high school and even a little advice to follow to help you get through freshman year. My Advice Essay In this essay, I'm going to give advice to the high school freshman class to help them out with their last four high school years and to help them be successful. The advice that I am going to give might and probably will help freshmen, whether they are in-coming or already enrolled. The first piece of advice that I believe will be the most helpful is to turn in your paperwork on time, or have it done early if possible. Make sure that you get it turned in on time to get the maximum number of points. And also make sure that you have a separate folder and notebook for EVERY class. In high school, it can be easy to get your papers mixed up because many of teachers give you... Term Paper Warehouse has free essays, term papers, and book reports for students on almost every research topic. Join Login The Research Paper Factory Join Search Browse Student Essays and Term Papers Our sample.
Graduate School Papers and You - is Despite the fact that, as Shakespeare said, "the pen is mightier than the sword," the pen itself is not enough to make an effective writer. In fact, though we may all like to think of ourselves as the next Shakespeare, inspiration alone is not the key to effective essay writing. You see, the conventions of English essays are more formulaic than you might think – and, in many ways, it can be as simple as counting to five. Though more advanced academic papers are a category all their own, the basic high school or college essay has the following standardized, five paragraph structure: Paragraph 1: Introduction Paragraph 2: Body 1 Paragraph 3: Body 2 Paragraph 4: Body 3 Paragraph 5: Conclusion Though it may seem formulaic – and, well, it is - the idea behind this structure is to make it easier for the reader to navigate the ideas put forth in an essay. You see, if your essay has the same structure as every other one, any reader should be able to quickly and easily find the information most relevant to them. The principle purpose of the introduction is to present your position (this is also known as the "thesis" or "argument") on the issue at hand but effective introductory paragraphs are so much more than that. Before you even get to this thesis statement, for example, the essay should begin with a "hook" that grabs the reader’s attention and makes them want to read on. Examples of effective hooks include relevant quotations ("no man is an island") or surprising statistics ("three out of four doctors report that…"). Only then, with the reader’s attention "hooked," should you move on to the thesis. The thesis should be a clear, one-sentence explanation of your position that leaves no doubt in the reader’s mind about which side you are on from the beginning of your essay. Following the thesis, you should provide a mini-outline which previews the examples you will use to support your thesis in the rest of the essay. Not only does this tell the reader what to expect in the paragraphs to come but it also gives them a clearer understanding of what the essay is about. Finally, designing the last sentence in this way has the added benefit of seamlessly moving the reader to the first paragraph of the body of the paper. In this way we can see that the basic introduction does not need to be much more than three or four sentences in length. If yours is much longer you might want to consider editing it down a bit! Here, by way of example, is an introductory paragraph to an essay in response to the following question: "Do we learn more from finding out that we have made mistakes or from our successful actions? " "No man is an island" and, as such, he is constantly shaped and influenced by his experiences. People learn by doing and, accordingly, learn considerably more from their mistakes than their success. For proof of this, consider examples from both science and everyday experience. Because this is the first paragraph of your essay it is your opportunity to give the reader the best first impression possible. The introductory paragraph not only gives the reader an idea of what you will talk about but also shows them how you will talk about it. Put a disproportionate amount of effort into this – more than the 20% a simple calculation would suggest – and you will be rewarded accordingly. Active voice, wherein the subjects direct actions rather than let the actions "happen to" them – "he scored a 97%" instead of "he was given a 97%" – is a much more powerful and attention-grabbing way to write. At the same time, unless it is a personal narrative, avoid personal pronouns like I, My, or Me. Try instead to be more general and you will have your reader hooked. The middle paragraphs of the essay are collectively known as the body paragraphs and, as alluded to above, the main purpose of a body paragraph is to spell out in detail the examples that support your thesis. For the first body paragraph you should use your strongest argument or most significant example unless some other more obvious beginning point (as in the case of chronological explanations) is required. The first sentence of this paragraph should be the topic sentence of the paragraph that directly relates to the examples listed in the mini-outline of introductory paragraph. A one sentence body paragraph that simply cites the example of "George Washington" or "Le Bron James" is not enough, however. No, following this an effective essay will follow up on this topic sentence by explaining to the reader, in detail, who or what an example is and, more importantly, why that example is relevant. For example, George Washington’s life was extremely complex – by using him as an example, do you intend to refer to his honesty, bravery, or maybe even his wooden teeth? The reader needs to know this and it is your job as the writer to paint the appropriate picture for them. To do this, it is a good idea to provide the reader with five or six relevant facts about the life (in general) or event (in particular) you believe most clearly illustrates your point. The importance of this step cannot be understated (although it clearly can be underlined); this is, after all, the whole reason you are providing the example in the first place. Seal the deal by directly stating why this example is relevant. Here is an example of a body paragraph to continue the essay begun above: Take, by way of example, Thomas Edison. The famed American inventor rose to prominence in the late 19th century because of his successes, yes, but even he felt that these successes were the result of his many failures. He did not succeed in his work on one of his most famous inventions, the lightbulb, on his first try nor even on his hundred and first try. In fact, it took him more than 1,000 attempts to make the first incandescent bulb but, along the way, he learned quite a deal. As he himself said, "I did not fail a thousand times but instead succeeded in finding a thousand ways it would not work." Thus Edison demonstrated both in thought and action how instructive mistakes can be. The first sentence – the topic sentence - of your body paragraphs needs to have a lot individual pieces to be truly effective. Not only should it open with a transition that signals the change from one idea to the next but also it should (ideally) also have a common thread which ties all of the body paragraphs together. For example, if you used "first" in the first body paragraph then you should used "secondly" in the second or "on the one hand" and "on the other hand" accordingly. Examples should be relevant to the thesis and so should the explanatory details you provide for them. It can be hard to summarize the full richness of a given example in just a few lines so make them count. If you are trying to explain why George Washington is a great example of a strong leader, for instance, his childhood adventure with the cherry tree (though interesting in another essay) should probably be skipped over. You may have noticed that, though the above paragraph aligns pretty closely with the provided outline, there is one large exception: the first few words. These words are example of a transitional phrase – others include "furthermore," "moreover," but also "by contrast" and "on the other hand" – and are the hallmark of good writing. Transitional phrases are useful for showing the reader where one section ends and another begins. It may be helpful to see them as the written equivalent of the kinds of spoken cues used in formal speeches that signal the end of one set of ideas and the beginning of another. In essence, they lead the reader from one section of the paragraph of another. To further illustrate this, consider the second body paragraph of our example essay: In a similar way, we are all like Edison in our own way. Whenever we learn a new skill - be it riding a bike, driving a car, or cooking a cake - we learn from our mistakes. Few, if any, are ready to go from training wheels to a marathon in a single day but these early experiences (these so-called mistakes) can help us improve our performance over time. You cannot make a cake without breaking a few eggs and, likewise, we learn by doing and doing inevitably means making mistakes. Hopefully this example not only provides another example of an effective body paragraph but also illustrates how transitional phrases can be used to distinguish between them. Although the conclusion paragraph comes at the end of your essay it should not be seen as an afterthought. As the final paragraph is represents your last chance to make your case and, as such, should follow an extremely rigid format. One way to think of the conclusion is, paradoxically, as a second introduction because it does in fact contain many of the same features. While it does not need to be too long – four well-crafted sentence should be enough – it can make or break and essay. Effective conclusions open with a concluding transition ("in conclusion," "in the end," etc.) and an allusion to the "hook" used in the introductory paragraph. After that you should immediately provide a restatement of your thesis statement. This should be the fourth or fifth time you have repeated your thesis so while you should use a variety of word choice in the body paragraphs it is a acceptable idea to use some (but not all) of the original language you used in the introduction. This echoing effect not only reinforces your argument but also ties it nicely to the second key element of the conclusion: a brief (two or three words is enough) review of the three main points from the body of the paper. Having done all of that, the final element – and final sentence in your essay – should be a "global statement" or "call to action" that gives the reader signals that the discussion has come to an end. In the end, then, one thing is clear: mistakes do far more to help us learn and improve than successes. As examples from both science and everyday experience can attest, if we treat each mistake not as a misstep but as a learning experience the possibilities for self-improvement are limitless. The conclusion paragraph can be a difficult paragraph to write effectively but, as it is your last chance to convince or otherwise impress the reader, it is worth investing some time in. Take this opportunity to restate your thesis with confidence; if you present your argument as "obvious" then the reader might just do the same. Although you can reuse the same key words in the conclusion as you did in the introduction, try not to copy whole phrases word for word. Instead, try to use this last paragraph to really show your skills as a writer by being as artful in your rephrasing as possible. Although it may seem like a waste of time – especially during exams where time is tight – it is almost always better to brainstorm a bit before beginning your essay. This should enable you to find the best supporting ideas – rather than simply the first ones that come to mind – and position them in your essay accordingly. Your best supporting idea – the one that most strongly makes your case and, simultaneously, about which you have the most knowledge – should go first. Even the best-written essays can fail because of ineffectively placed arguments. Sentences and vocabulary of varying complexity are one of the hallmarks of effective writing. When you are writing, try to avoid using the same words and phrases over and over again. You don’t have to be a walking thesaurus but a little variance can make the same idea sparkle. If you are asked about "money," you could try "wealth" or "riches." At the same time, avoid beginning sentences the dull pattern of "subject verb direct object." Although examples of this are harder to give, consider our writing throughout this article as one big example of sentence structure variety. In the end, though, remember that good writing does not happen by accident. Although we have endeavored to explain everything that goes into effective essay writing in as clear and concise a way as possible, it is much easier in theory than it is in practice. As a result, we recommend that you practice writing sample essays on various topics. Even if they are not masterpieces at first, a bit of regular practice will soon change that – and make you better prepared when it comes to the real thing. Writing a term paper about the topic will help you determine if the topic is broad and deep enough to fulfill a large project and will also help you determine if it will sustain your interest. Term papers offer a place for you to test ideas.
Advice for Students How to Write Research Papers that Rock! Assignment save the comprehensive final exam seems to engender such fear in students as the research paper, especially the open topic research paper. Faced with the prospect of writing 5, 8, 12, or more pages on a topic of their choosing, a lot of students panic, unsure what to write about and how to research it. Far too often, students endanger their grades and even their academic futures by turning to online essay sites or other sources and copying what they assume is decent work (it rarely is, of course). I’ve even had students hand in No assignment save the comprehensive final exam seems to engender such fear in students as the research paper, especially the open topic research paper. Faced with the prospect of writing 5, 8, 12, or more pages on a topic of their choosing, a lot of students panic, unsure what to write about and how to research it. Far too often, students endanger their grades and even their academic futures by turning to online essay sites or other sources and copying what they assume is decent work (it rarely is, of course). I’ve even had students hand in One of the reasons students balk at research paper is that writing them is a skill that most college professors assume their students have, while few high school teachers teach it — leaving students to work out for themseves how exactly to proceed. Add to that the fact that students often take a range of courses they have little or no interest in to satisfy their general requirements, and it’s no wonder that students often feel hung out to dry when it comes to writing research papers. Looked at properly, research papers can be a great way to deepen your understanding of your chosen field, and may be the first step towards developing a specialization that will serve you well as you move into your career or advanced education. There are a lot of things you can do to help make research papers work for you — and get a decent grade in the process: — it can be, with a little thought, work you enjoy pouring yourself into. No assignment save the comprehensive final exam seems to engender such fear in students as the research paper, especially the open topic research paper. Fa No assignment save the comprehensive final exam seems.
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